This chapter presents the main findings of the capitalisation exercise, divided into four Sections:
- Summaries of the project analysis
- Selected Good Practices and recommendations
- Cross analysis by theme / Topic
- Core questions
The Project Assessment Files in Annexe 3 contain the full analysis carried out for each project and their Good Practices. In Section 1, a summary of each project analysis is presented, and then 15 of them were selected as being good examples in terms of innovation and/or transferability. They are reported in Section 2 and are highlighted in boxes in the project analysis (Section 1). At the end of Section 2, some general and tailored recommendations are provided for the capitalisation of these selected exemplary Good Practices.
Section 3 presents a cross-analysis of Good Practices by thematic area and Topic, and Section 4 provides answers and recommendations concerning some of the core questions raised at the programme level. Specific recommendations are provided for individual projects, drawing attention to important practices/ policies.
The analysis is based on a total of 244 Good Practices (94 for the concluded projects and 150 so far identified by the ongoing projects), distributed among the 15 projects as shown in the figure.
1. PROJECT SUMMARIES
In this Section, the 15 project analyses are summarised. For full details see Annexe 1 – Cluster Fact Sheet, Annexe 2 – Cluster Map and Annexe 3 – Project Assessment Files.
- 1.1 CATCH-MR
Cooperative approaches to transport challenges in Metropolitan Regions
The project objective was to improve the competitiveness and the quality of life in metropolitan Regions. The partners exchanged and sought to adapt passenger transport solutions with the objective of reducing transport needs without impairing mobility and increasing the share of environmentally friendly transport.
1.1.2 MAIN GOOD PRACTICES
The Good Practices outlined by the project placed a special emphasis on simplifying administrative requirements in order to minimise the regional ‘frontier effects’. The integration of public transport into metropolitan area systems has the benefit of introducing specific transport policies that address issues like accessibility (modal shift improvement) and user satisfaction, which can be drivers promoting sustainability in transport. As for the concepts, ideas or activities themselves, the Good Practices presented are not thematically innovative, although some of them do use a non-traditional approach to the problem, which represents an added value.
It should be mentioned that, among these Good Practices, the ones related to joint transport and land use planning do provide some interesting and meaningful examples. They demonstrate how difficult problems can be addressed and how the situation can be improved, even if their transferability is not immediate.
The Gothenburg Good Practice example of a ‘Participative approach in [the] Gothenburg region’ is a significant example for showcasing. This Good Practice developed by the CATCH_MR project employs an informal planning/organisational participative approach, which is distinctive. This Good Practice is a means for implementing a legitimate and accepted long-term vision for innovation inregional transport systems. By developing a consensual and integrated vision shared by all the stakeholders regarding environmental, economic, and social issues, the planning and decision-making process can be simplified at the regional level.
One of the Good Practices presented (Toll Ring: Road user charging in Oslo / Akershus) concerns road user charging and introduces a ‘pay-per-use’ metered service concept. It means that the costs of the road infrastructures and other externalities are covered (at least in part) not by general taxation but according to the use of these infrastructures (in this case paying a fee every time you access the Oslo road ring). This represents a modern trend within EU transport policy. To fast track transferring this knowledge, this Good Practice should provide information about stakeholders’ roles, include opinion polls and should also carry out an assessment of the financial aspects involved. In particular, it should give details of the externalities to be considered (e.g. emissions mitigation, accidents and energy savings), the financing schemes, and the generated income. The Oslo experience is one of the very few experiences in Europe concerned with access pricing, road pricing, and congestion charging. A substantial amount of research has been produced on this Topic. To be more effective in terms of knowledge transfer and to go beyond being mere descriptions of an experience, a comprehensive description of the different aspects of the implementation of such a scheme would be required.
There are two Good Practices promoting intermodality that reveal potential for transferability: ‘The Ideal Intermodal Node – Guidebook on Intermodality in [the] Gothenburg Region’ and ‘Facilitating Access to Public Transport – Flexible Approach to Park&Ride Strategies in Budapest’. Of course, the design solutions are linked to the specific local situations, but the project did attempt to generalise the approach. The Gothenburg Good Practice ‘The Ideal Intermodal Node’ describes how an intermodal node/interchange can be designed taking account of all the relevant aspects, especially the most important factor (the traveller). The case of Budapest reveals how a Park&Ride can be a tool for providing better access to public transport in areas where local feeder services are more expensive.
Finally, it should be added that the project produced policy recommendations, along with recommended actions and practical examples that could serve as useful tools for capitalisation.
1.1.3 RELEVANCE OF THE TOPICS ADDRESSED
Public transport and urban planning in metropolitan regions is a challenge. In effect, urban sprawl and changes in urban density are decisive factors in whether public transport and other alternatives to the private car are going to be viable. Low demand for public transport in low-density areas, on the other hand, naturally leads to higher costs and this, given the financial constraints, leads to service reductions, which consequently induce a lower use of public transport worsening the quality of life and producing social exclusion.
The usual solution is to use private cars, which leads to traffic jams, as well as to energy and environmental problems. To break this vicious cycle, effective cooperation between urban and transport planners, decision-makers (local, regional, and national level), and private developers is imperative in public transport planning and urban development. Consequently, the Topic can be considered of high relevance for European policies, but it is often difficult to go beyond the theory to deliver the proposed solutions. Too many constraints exist in the real urban environment, mainly stemming from different economic interests and cultural barriers and resistance from different sources. As an example of the numerous barriers, we can mention factors such as the traditional divisions within the different departments of municipalities, the actions of economic lobbies principally interested in the ‘growth’ of cities, the traditional attitude of addressing transport planning concerns only after urban planning, and the low level of interactions between these different stakeholders. Energy and environmental issues are among the main constraints to transport policy design. Achieving energy-efficient transport and reducing greenhouse gas emissions are challenges for the transport sector. These problems are most evident in urban environments such as metropolitan areas. The CATCH_MR explores the efforts made to tackle the major problems of transport in urban areas.
1.1.4 TRANSFERABILITY, DRIVERS, AND BARRIERS
Most of the presented Good Practices cannot be considered as being easily transferable since they are dependent on specific local conditions and require an in-depth transferability analysis. The most easily transferable practices are those related to encouraging the use of public and shared transport.
Multi-layered governance integrating planning of urban, transport, energy, and environmental issues is a sound basis for the smart development of metropolitan areas. The integration of urban and public transport planning varies widely across Europe. There are two main strategies for this integration: bottom-up and top-down. One of the barriers that may affect the capitalisation of the Good Practices related to urban and transport planning is the lack of ministerial involvement at the national level. The Good Practices of the project are more oriented to local and regional borders, and the development of stronger ties with the national level could be a driver to expand the capitalisation potential. The right level of national involvement will empower local or regional transport development.
Other significant barriers to the adoption of integrated planning strategies include cultural resistance, the inertia of several players as well as multiple organisational constraints. However, it is not easy to testify to the results of these policies since they often take a long-time to produce verifiable outputs.
Moreover, an effective involvement of private developers, private mobility associations, and stakeholders will improve the integration of urban and public transport planning. The Good Practices should stress and justify the importance of private sector engagement.
The main driver is the need to improve transport systems in metropolitan regions. This important need is well understood by policymakers, especially with regard to the efficiency of the transport system and environmentally sound solutions. An important driver for the implementation of long-term planning policies is the ability to define ways of overcoming the resistance from policymakers and politicians in the short term.
- 1.2 CAPRICE
Capital Regions Integrating Collective transport for increased energy Efficiency
CAPRICE aims to make mobility in urban and metropolitan areas more sustainable, safer, integrated, accessible to all, and health-friendly, working in an integrated way on several thematic areas:
• the organisation and financing of public transport;
• the tendering and contracting of passenger transport services;
• sustainable energy and the implementation of clean vehicles in public transport;
• integrated passenger information;
• integrated ticketing;
• public transport planning for integrated services of an improved quality;
• accessibility for people with special needs.
1.2.2 MAIN GOOD PRACTICES
The CAPRICE project took account of several dimensions of the transport system (including infrastructure, modal and fare integration, accessibility) with a special attention to ‘frontier-effects’ and met with remarkable success transferring some of the identified Good Practices.
The most important achievements of the projects can be seen in the area of public transport, as shown by the issues addressed in the following Good Practices.
The Berlin/Brandenburg (VBB) and Warsaw (ZTM) regions worked on launching a common passenger information website. The next step envisaged within the project is to create an integrated train and public transport ticket valid in both capitals. These practices could have a significant transferability potential for mobility among different regions (especially in different states).
‘The integrated public transport model in Berlin and Paris’ Good Practice (Integrated public transport systems of Berlin and Paris) can be considered as an exemplary initiative for other regional capitals. This model is a successful example of Good Practice transfer between metropolitan regions. It demonstrates how cooperation between authorities can be realised through knowledge transfer in relation to public transport service contracting. The Paris transport authority (RATB) draft contract was adapted and transferred to others authorities.
The cooperation between Paris, Berlin, and Warsaw is a good example of transferability, and a report on its implementation including a good overview of all the considered aspects has been made available. Thanks to this initial experience, the partners extended their cooperation to other issues: marketing, customer information, fare systems, revenue sharing and cooperation with long-distance rail services.
In the same field, the transfer of tendering and contracting procedures for public transport to Warsaw can be considered significant and rather original with regard to the adoption of a new strategy designed to manage the transition from a completely publicly managed public transport system to a mixed-scheme which includes private operators.
Another important Topic was the production of urban mobility plans. The Good Practice of the Paris Ile-de-France region is a good example for a systematic approach to defining the needs, targets, and plans integrating a whole range of mobility modes and related issues.
With regard to low-emission vehicles, CAPRICE reported a significant practice involving hydrogen fuelled vehicles, but the potential of transferability is limited since these technologies represent market niches with high prices. They are only currently in a very early stage of development and not therefore widely applicable.
The project paid special attention to passengers with reduced mobility. Some examples from the Paris Ile-de-France region and Berlin-Brandenburg reveal some practices that include measures, such as facilitating MP3 guides for visually impaired passengers so as to make public transport more accessible to everyone. CAPRICE produced ‘A Decision Maker’s Guide’ to help public transport authorities improve their transport systems. This Guide stresses eight steps for promoting an integrated policy, enabling better services to be provided by transport authorities, and for each step, some policy recommendations are provided.
1.2.3 RELEVANCE OF THE TOPICS ADDRESSED
The focus of the CAPRICE project was mainly on the overall organisation of public transport in capital cities and regions and therefore addressed mainly metropolitan areas and themes. The approach used was comprehensive, covering almost all the problems related to the effectiveness of public transport: accessibility, quality, management procedures, planning, and energy/environmental impacts.
1.2.4 TRANSFERABILITY, DRIVERS, AND BARRIERS
With regard to the preparation of a SUMP, the transferability of the Good Practices presented by the project is mainly theoretical. For instance, the SUMP developed for the Ile-de-France is significant both in terms of its approach and the range of mobility issues considered.
All the aspects related to contracting and tendering have a higher potential of transferability (as shown by the project). However, there are specific barriers involved owing to the legal/legislative specifications of the contracts and tenders. In this respect, the Warsaw model could be of interest to those regions looking to shift the management of public transport from a totally state-owned one to a more balanced model considering private initiatives (for example, in the new Members States coming from Eastern Europe).
The transferability potential of the interregional travel planner, like the one implemented in the Warsaw metropolitan region can be found mainly in the concept itself and in the adopted methodology. In fact, its implementation is based on market products and solutions that can vary over time and depend on the location.
Broadly speaking, it can be inferred that the project findings were essentially focused on large urban areas that represent the main targets for any potential transfer actions and where the main stakeholders are the policymakers, the public transport operators, and the authorities.
The political will to improve the quality of the public transport system and the need to have a more efficient public transport structure in the Regions are the main drivers. The most important barriers can be found in the complexity of the processes involved in managing certain themes, such as the SUMP, or the large and differentiated tendering processes and the financial resources required.
- 1.3 MMOVE
MOBILITY MANAGEMENT OVER EUROPE
The project focused on improving the effectiveness of sustainable mobility policies implemented by local authorities in small and medium-sized cities in Europe, even when broad geographical and cultural differences existed between them. Another main objective was to increase the level of awareness among regional policymakers on the importance of adopting integrated and innovative mobility management solutions. As the project targeted small and medium cities, the focus of attention was on demand management and low-cost interventions aimed at changing public perceptions of sustainable mobility and citizens’ mobility behaviour. The project developed a significant number of feasibility studies for the transfer of some of the identified Good Practices.
1.3.2 MAIN GOOD PRACTICES
Most of the Good Practices presented focus on mobility management and sustainable transport awareness campaigns. Some of the Good Practices addressed focus on supporting public transport, with a special emphasis on ‘non-conventional’ services (like cycling and walking).
The Good Practice ‘Quality Bus Partnership – Brighton & Hove – UK’ is a good example of an improvement plan, resulting in a fully-integrated, comprehensive, bus network, requiring the coordination among the different partners, with respect to their investments, and planning capacities, but which does provide significant results.
A Good Practice that could be highlighted for encouraging the use of public and shared transport is the ‘tram extension: the former tram line’ in Ulm (DE). This Good Practice is a good example for the transfer of planning methodologies used in the implementation and extension of a tram line to another region without a tram/ tram train system. It represents an infrastructural project to improve public transport by enhancing an existing trunk line.
Other interesting Good Practices in terms of transferability include the car sharing project in Ulm (car2go) since it is based on a practical scheme. In fact, the car sharing service that started in Ulm is now present in several cities. A barrier to the transferability of this Good Practice is related to the size of the city: it is not suitable for medium-sized cities since the service requires the availability of a large car pool that would not be supported by the lower demand.
If we consider ‘mobility management’, the collection of Good Practices presented refers to very different actions - both infrastructural (cycling network, pedestrian areas) and behavioural (home- work and home-school travel plans, cycling, and walking) - dedicated to traffic management (blue area, bollards, traffic light priority). None of these is truly innovative, and the majority of them relate to very common strategies that are widely applied in traffic engineering. The point of interest lies in the fact that these Good Practices have been applied in small and medium-sized cities where the first steps to regulate traffic are being taken. Their degree of transferability is high in terms of concepts and techniques, but they need a complex design and need to be tailored to the local context.
The experience of Reggio Emilia with electric vehicles is well-known as a pioneering experience and is a very good example of how a medium-sized city can exploit the use of electrical vehicles. The scheme can be replicated and transferred to other cities.
The experience of the Marche Region ‘Roadway accessible to blind people’ is significant as an example of how increasing accessibility is not only dependant on infrastructure, but can also be pursued through ‘soft measures’ like personal assistance concepts that show a high potential for transfer to other regions.
Lastly, with regard to awareness and marketing campaigns, the project outlines a wide variety of Good Practices, most of them relating to different ways of promoting a culture of a more rational mobility and modifying citizens’ mobility behaviour.
Some of the Good Practices are quite original, such as the ‘JourneyOn marketing campaigns’ due to their wide spectrum of integrated actions, or the Good Practice ‘Bus12 card’ which also implies a significant investment by the Municipality and reaches a large number of citizens, or the two Good Practices in Sweden related to linking cycling to work with health concerns and finding new ways of promoting cycling. All of these schemes and Good Practices are easily transferable since they do not require particular pre-requisites, even though they must be adapted to the local cultural and practical context. The real problem is that the outcomes and the benefits of these kinds of measures are often very hard to monitor because they act mainly on cultural traits and future attitudes.
MMOVE produced a ‘Moveability Guide’ which includes the final summary and the technical findings of the project. This tool presents the results of the project and the Good Practices acquired from the feasibility studies and the main recommendations about the critical success factors for transferability. Another interesting outcome of the project is a ‘mobility management toolbox’ designed to address the basic issues of mobility management based on theory, Good Practices, evaluation, and implementation as well as a step-by-step guide on how to implement the Good Practices (more details at http://mobilitytoolbox.eu/).
1.3.3 RELEVANCE OF THE TOPICS ADDRESSED
The project addressed several different Topics with different relevance and potential impact. The most important fact, however, is that the entire project focused on small and medium-sized cities. They represent a priority in mobility-related EU policies due to their large number in Europe and the number of inhabitants involved. Additionally, the mobility solutions adopted by these cities are not always in line with the state-of-the-art, and the quality and quantity of public transport is often not sufficient to satisfy the real needs. In this context, the policies adopted were neither particularly innovative nor advanced in themselves, but their innovative component lies in the fact that they are applied in environments where their application is not always expected and obvious. This could be an incentive to other small and medium-sized cities to adopt the same path. Almost all of the Good Practices presented here could be useful for the target environment of small and medium-sized European cities.
1.3.4 TRANSFERABILITY, DRIVERS, AND BARRIERS
The transferability of a significant number of the analysed Good Practices is quite high since they concern mobility management practices and promotional campaigns. It is easy to replicate these formats in the local context, even if a careful analysis of the local conditions and cultural milieu is required. Some of the proposed formats are very common and practically identical all over Europe (such as mobility management in schools and workplaces, awareness campaigns, etc.) but even the most innovative approaches can be generally be replicated after being tailored. Of course, the most complex and integrated initiatives require the availability of financial and human resources, and this can represent a barrier. Another important barrier is lack of attention to mobility problems from policymakers. In small and medium-sized cities these issues are not often perceived as being critical for decision-makers. Furthermore, the lack of skilled personnel to carry out such actions as proposed by the project can hinder the process.
While it is often not easy to measure the outcomes of these actions, the visibility that some of them can give policymakers and stakeholders and the limited risk they present are drivers, which can act as a catalyst.
- 1.4 FLIPPER
Transport Services and ICT platform for Eco-Mobility in urban and rural European areas
The FLIPPER project addresses a key factor of eco-sustainable and competitive development and social cohesion in European areas and regions, namely through investigation, experience exchange, transferral of Good Practices, and profitable cooperation on Demand Responsive Transport (DRT) in relation to mobility in cities, rural areas, and small towns.
1.4.2 MAIN GOOD PRACTICES
All the Good Practices are related to the same DRT Topic with different levels of transferability, importance, and potential impact. Arranged by country, these are:
ITALY - Experiences in the Borgo Panigale and Budrio municipalities, Bologna (New services: colBUS and ‘just–in-time’ bus and driver model) and Florence Metropolitan Area (Proposal: keeping the school service a conventional one, with fixed routes and timetables, and transformed into an on-demand service).
AUSTRIA - Alpine Rural, Defereggental Valley: DRT for an alpine rural region as a feeder service to the existing PT services, filling the spatial and temporal gaps of the operations. ‘GmoaBus’ is an example of application of low-cost DRT in low-demand areas.
GREECE – Experiences of the Kastoria Municipality, County of Langadasm and Volos Municipality: DRT, either operated by taxis, with booking system or by minibuses, in rural areas, or a transport solution for people with disabilities.
SPAIN – Experience in Formentera: study to update a new model of public transport with the implementation of ‘voice intercoms’ at selected bus stops, maximising the flexibility of transport services.
PORTUGAL – Experience in the Municipality of Almada: a new service, called Flexi BUS System, based on fixed routes with detours on request (called ‘pick-ups’ or ‘antennas’), pre-determined schedules, passenger drop-offs on request, and picking up of passengers at previously designated meeting points.
IRELAND – Experience at South Tipperary: testing a new service called ‘Ring a Link travel’, to improve access to health services for residents in the Slieveardagh area.
Through the course of all these case studies, FLIPPER has developed some important methodological tools, namely:
• A self-evaluation questionnaire for politicians and other subjects to evaluate the knowledge about DRT. It is useful as a tool to increase awareness among politicians and other decision-makers on the theme of DRT and for capturing their interest by clarifying the various aspects of the problem.
• A methodology for benchmarking the flexible services has been adopted and the different feasibility studies and pilot projects have been cross-evaluated according to this methodology. It can equally be used to evaluate any kind of DRT service.
• Guidelines to plan and design the DRT, to carry out tenders and to optimise the service. It is a good example of how a generalisation effort can produce useful methodological tools that can be used to analyse the local situation and to design the service. This can be a suitable aspect for capitalisation.
• Analysis of the regulatory framework for DRT in the different project states. Of course, this analysis only takes account of the regulatory framework in the partner states, but even this gives a clear indication of the problems faced and the solutions that can be adopted.
1.4.3 RELEVANCE OF THE TOPICS ADDRESSED
The problem of public transport in low-demand areas has been widely debated and has always been considered critical. In fact, if the use of public transport is supposed to have advantages from an environmental perspective, the costs related to a good quality service are often high. The economic viability and convenience of these services often represent the key factors for evaluating their possible implementation. In this respect, the economic evaluation of the service is of great importance, and this Topic has been addressed by the project in a limited manner. The benchmarking methodologies used in one of the project reports take into account many interesting factors, giving a clear view of the methodology, but the economic dimension of the services is almost always neglected (only considering the revenues). The relationship between costs and quality of the service is a very important factor when deciding to set up a similar service.
Notwithstanding these considerations and the widely held belief that DRT will always be limited by economic factors and will continue to be only of marginal relevance to ‘major public transport’, we believe that they can represent (as testified by many current applications) a good response for low-demand or specific applications. DRT techniques have found further application not only in low-demand areas, but also for special user categories (e.g., the elderly, the physically impaired) or particular situations of public transport service (night services in small or even in large towns) which can constitute, for instance, a key force in social cohesion.
Of course, the ability to exploit this role is closely linked to the proper use of these techniques and to the ability to correctly identify the needs and the solutions. The project outcomes can provide genuine support to the preliminary work and be a useful tool for public administrations when evaluating the possibility of adopting a DRT solution.
The Topics addressed and the Good Practices identified can be important for European regional development policy, particularly in relation to the following issues:
• Improvement of public transport in low-demand areas;
• Social inclusion;
• Development of rural areas;
• Accessibility to the elderly / physically disabled/ visually impaired individuals.
1.4.4 TRANSFERABILITY, DRIVERS, AND BARRIERS
Most of these Good Practices are transferable, particularly those related to DRT models and their possible application in different environments. This is very clear from the examples provided within the project (the different case studies) where different regions have found different solutions to the same need for providing public transport services in low-demand areas. The transferability can be supported by the documentation developed by the project and especially the documents on design guidelines, the legal framework, and the benchmarking. Even the ‘Policy tool’ developed can represent a useful method for increasing the awareness among policymakers and decision-makers.
The target of the transfer actions can be both Local Administrations (generally those in charge of public transport planning and management, which may differ from region to region and state to state) and public transport companies. Many regions and cities could benefit since almost all the local bodies have to deal with similar problems and needs.
The main driver is the need to provide transport services to special categories of users or in specific low-demand areas. Particularly suitable situations are low-demand areas where there is a regular transport line service that can be replaced by a DRT, or new residential areas that are be provided with public transport, or rural areas where different kinds of special transport services can be integrated into a DRT scheme by optimising resources. The potential audience is large, even if the effective application must be carefully evaluated.
The most significant barrier is economic convenience and the sustainability of the service, meaning that a careful design must be carried out to analyse the most suitable service scheme, technology, and the economic viability. This analysis must also take account of the general social costs related to the use of public/private modes of transport in these situations.
Another important issue is choice of technology for the various implementation solutions. The case studies developed within the project used different technological solutions; they can be acquired on the market, but these solutions are subject to obsolescence.
- 1.5 PIMMS TRANSFER
Transferring actions in sustainable mobility for European regions
PIMMS TRANSFER extended and promoted the ‘transfer methodology’ developed in PIMMS (project funded under INTERREG IIIC), especially devoted to overcoming the barriers to mobility management. The aim was to limit the use of private cars (especially in the new Member States - pushed by the development of infrastructures through the use of structural funds) promoting the widespread adoption of mobility management techniques.
The project focused on three key themes typically addresses by mobility management:
• Policy and integration;
• Travel plans – schools;
• Public engagement, training, and soft interventions.
1.5.2 MAIN GOOD PRACTICES
The project has identified eight Good Practices and delivered two guidebooks/transfer manuals.
The Good Practice ‘Design and management of interchanges - London’ is a good example of interchange policy, but it is also of particular interest because it includes a manual of guidelines for implementing and managing interchange, which contains a methodology for evaluating the quality of existing and proposed interchanges. It would be useful to benchmark this knowledge.
The cycling measures, in particular the ‘Treviso Bike sharing scheme’, which outlines an integrated set of measures to promote cycling, may be an example of unlocking the potential of the use of bicycles in a medium-sized city.
The Good Practice ‘TREVISOSTA electronic parking system’ in Treviso is quite an innovative application of an on-road parking management system, which is going to be successful in the market but whose diffusion is at the moment restricted. For this reason, it could be interesting as an innovation, even though the costs of implementation may constitute a barrier for transfer.
The Good Practice ‘Accessibility in public areas for impaired people’ in Graz (Austria) improves accessibility to public areas for mobility-reduced/visually impaired individuals. The city of Graz has set up barrier-free areas and tactile surfaces in public spaces and toilets, at crossings and traffic lights, on pavements, and at public transport stops. The measures presented are a good example of the issue of social integration, which is of vital importance to the EU’s transport policy. For this reason, its transfer potential is important.
Finally, the Good Practice ‘The Better Bankside and Cambridge Science Park Travel Plan’ in East Anglia (UK) consists of several different integrated initiatives (mobility facilities, information, events, discounts, gadgets, etc.) for private companies, including small ones. The complete range of measures introduced in this travel plan - focusing on cycling and walking – represent a comprehensive & complementary package of different promotional actions also associated with modes of transport offering the user a series of benefits, which contribute to the reduction of car use.
Lastly, PIMMS offers policy recommendations aimed at increasing sustainable mobility by promoting and transferring effective mobility management techniques to local and regional decision-makers.
1.5.3 RELEVANCE OF THE TOPICS ADDRESSED
The project’s networking and awareness raising activities were targeted at policymakers and other important decision makers and included a diversified set of actions (study tours, guidelines, workshops etc.) on a limited but significant set of Good Practices. They in turn address a limited number of thematic areas, mainly linked to mobility management and are mainly addressed with a view to changing travellers’ attitudes and behaviour and to providing alternative modes of transport for achieving more rational modal choices and, to consequently altering the dominant modal share. A clear example of this approach is seen in ‘The Better Bankside and Cambridge Science Park Travel Plan’.
The cases presented and the Topics addressed can be considered quite relevant as tools that can be used by urban and mobility planners, together with other kinds of interventions implemented to improve the general mobility framework.
The importance of these actions can be perceived more clearly if we consider the fact that they contribute to modifying citizens’ approach to mobility and to lastingly changing their mobility attitudes and habits (especially for younger generations). We can consider this as a long-term investment in line with the European policy aimed at achieving a cultural/behavioural change towards more sustainable mobility models.
1.5.4 TRANSFERABILITY, DRIVERS, AND BARRIERS
We must underline that the transferability of some of the Good Practices selected is constrained by specific local characteristics. Some of the Good practices require conditions that may hinder transferral (as in the case of Water transport). Moreover, some others mainly address large cities (interchange, handling of transport, and traffic associated with major sporting events) and are of interest as examples of method, meaning that the practical transferability is subject to a complex analysis and design work starting from an analysis of the local conditions.
Similarly, Good Practices or policies such as the ‘Better Bankside Travel Plan’, ‘Walking bus to school’, ‘Cycling measures in Treviso’ or ‘Trevisosta’, can be easily transferred, even if they still need, be it to different extents, to be tailored.
We can say that the project has collected some Good Practices with significant transferability potential.
The barriers are different from one case to the next. As previously stated, some of them are accessible mainly to large cities, sometimes entailing significant investments (Interchange) or complicated management (large events). They do however respond to real and pressing needs of large cities to limit the effect of traffic, acting as an immediate catalyst.
In other cases (parking management), the barriers include the degree of innovation and the cost of the system, but an important driver is the significant income recovery resulting from the application of these technologies and the improvement of the traffic conditions in particularly critical areas.
If we finally consider the mobility management actions, we can note that, as usual, their degree of transferability is quite high: the formats are quite easily replicable, even if adaptation to local conditions is needed. Of course the more complex and integrated the scheme, the more they require both economic and human resources to be adequately implemented. This could represent a barrier to transfer. But there are important drivers too: they are relatively easy to implement compared with other much more relevant policies since they very rarely generate conflicts and social resistance. Moreover, they can also appeal to numerous people and can give political visibility with only moderate efforts and complications. For this reason they can be easily proposed and accepted.
- 1.6 PIMMS CAPITAL
Capitalising on Partner Initiatives in Mobility Management
This project was the ‘capitalisation’ stage of two similarly named preceding projects – i.e., PIMMS and PIMMS TRANSFER. The project has been extended to a significant number of regions. It aims at stimulating a modal shift towards more sustainable forms of transport by increasing the implementation of high quality mobility management techniques and policies in European regions. With a view to spreading the practice of mobility management actions, the project stresses the need to remove the barriers (mainly cultural and organisational) that are often encountered.
1.6.2 MAIN GOOD PRACTICES
Mobility management can play a role in the overall structure of mobility and public transport if it is integrated within an overarching framework designed to develop a rational integration of the different modes of transport and techniques aimed at providing more efficient response to mobility needs and at promoting better mobility. In this project, some of the other selected Good Practices should be noted as examples with specific transferability potential:
The ‘regional Transport, Mobility Management and Spatial Planning – Stockholm’ practice is a significant successful example of a cooperative approach designed to link different (technical and financial) visions and to integrate the concepts of sustainability into the planning sphere. This integration of land-use with transport planning is now widely recognised among the experts as one of the main tools to ensure a balanced development between urban areas and environmental preservation, but it also represents a real methodological revolution for the large majority of regions and administrative bodies, since it is difficult to achieve for many internal and external reasons. The methodological significance of this Good Practice is high.
The example of the West Midlands (Integrated Transport Strategy) is of interest on account of its degree of integration and comprehensiveness. Several aspects of an effective integrated transport system design have been considered, with particular attention focused on environmental and social issues.
The ‘Worcester Sustainable Travel Demonstration Town (STT)’ is a Good Practice that demonstrates interesting results in an integrated approach to mobility designed to promote the use of public transport without banning the use of private cars.
The Treviso (Italy) Good Practice ‘Integrated fares: technological investments on automatic ticketing’ reports on the value of an electronic ticketing system that can be integrated into the urban and inter-urban public transport network. An innovative aspect is the way it is integrated into the passenger information system. The integration of fares, multi-modal use and travel information is one of the key means of facilitating the use of public transport and fostering intermodality.
Another Good Practice in Treviso, named ‘Safe Roads’, is a notable example of an action being targeted at young people and aimed at improving their safety. It is a mix of different interventions, all of which obtained very good results, and is, for this reason, a good model that is easily replicable in other regions.
Finally, the Good Practice developed in the Stockholm ‘regional Platform for Mobility Management’, which consists of a regional platform for cooperation and interaction regarding mobility management is an important tool for obtaining results and has a potential for being transferred to other regions. This Good Practice shows how extensive cooperation among different players coupled with an efficient coordination by a public body can lead to good results in spreading Mobility Management practices.
The project has produced a ‘regional Action Plan’ for each partner. This strategic plan addresses the steps that will be taken by the project partners for importing the Good Practices.
The project also developed a ‘Manifesto for Mobility Management’, which aims at helping policymakers to gain a coherent vision and to provide a framework for others to adopt a mobility management philosophy.
1.6.3 RELEVANCE OF THE TOPICS ADDRESSED
Mobility management is a concept aimed at promoting sustainable transport and managing the demand for car use by changing travellers’ attitudes and behaviour and is an important aspect in the organisation of a city or region’s transport system. The integration of different modes of transport according to their specific characteristics contributes to the development and implementation of measures designed to promote the rational use of the transport system.
Mobility Management works mainly by changing travellers’ attitudes and behaviour and by providing alternative modes of transport to achieve more rational modal choices and, consequently, to change the dominant modal share. Mobility Management measures generally do not require large investments because most of them are associated with the organisation and coordination of services, promotional activities, and other similar initiatives.
In terms of relevance, we can note that Mobility Management as a specific practice is currently, after a period of great popularity, no longer the centre of attention of experts and practitioners. But most of the techniques once classified under the ‘Mobility Management’ label have nevertheless been included in the ‘toolbox’ of traffic engineers and mobility planners. Additionally, we must consider that these actions contribute to modifying citizens’ attitudes to mobility, and this modification (especially for the younger generations) is the most valuable guarantee for long-lasting - if not immediate - results. For this reason, we think that mobility management actions can be considered as a relevant Topic, in line with the European policy of achieving a cultural/behavioural change towards more sustainable mobility models.
1.6.4 TRANSFERABILITY, DRIVERS, AND BARRIERS
Most of the identified Good Practices show a high level of transferability. In fact, as stated previously, these kinds of actions are not investment intensive and do not meet particular resistance from citizens or other stakeholders, since they are generally based on offering additional options and leveraging persuasion and appeal. Sometimes significant actions (as shown by the project) can be carried out even with limited economic resources - because the human factor is the most important.
The transferability of mobility management policies depends on cooperation among different stakeholders. In addition, the involvement of the private sector in the development of mobility management policies is essential and is one of the major drivers of the project. This difficulty is also often perceived as a barrier and requires managerial and relational capabilities to be overcome.
The limited availability of skilled resources, able to design and manage these initiatives, can be a significant barrier in smaller cities or regions.
Additionally, there is often a lack of attention by mobility planners and by engineers to these types of actions, which are considered to be of minor importance and impact, revealing a significant cultural barrier. This mistrust is deepened by the difficulty in measuring and evaluating, in a short period of time, the results of the majority of the mobility management actions.
Raising policymakers’ awareness of the potential of mobility management and the role it could play in urban mobility policies could be a good driver for their improved use.
Some notes about the drivers behind mobility actions: An important driver is simply the ease with which such policies can be implemented compared to other much more impacting policies since they very rarely generate conflicts and social resistance. Moreover, they can appeal to numerous stakeholders and can give political visibility with moderate efforts and complications. For this reason they can be easily proposed and accepted.
There are different considerations related to spatial and transport planning integration; the added value of transferring the concept is considerable, but, of course, the real transferability is heavily limited by a wide variety of parameters, namely cultural, organisational and economic. However, the relevance of the Topic is so high that this issue must be promoted and supported.
Finally, the example of the integrated ticketing system in Treviso is not so easily transferable because it is based on a technological solution that entails significant barriers, such as a complex analysis and design, and a long implementation procedure that requires significant economic resources. The main driver for decision-makers (and the important added value brought by these solutions) is its wide capacity for integration into different public transport networks and different services.
- 1.7 EPTA
European model for Public Transport Authority
The EPTA project aims to improve regions’ governance capacity in the area of public transport by defining a general model for a public transport authority applicable to other local contexts and realities. It aims to achieve this through the analysis of the different Good Practices that can be transferred, tailored and adopted for the successful setting up or reorganisation of these authorities.
1.7.2 MAIN GOOD PRACTICES
The Good Practices have been classified according to the seven key activities of a public transport authority. Since the EPTA Project mainly focuses on the public transport authority, the large majority of the Good Practices could be classified as ‘regional Transport Authority’ Topics. But, in this case, as a specific classification has been adopted by the Project, this is one that will be used.
• REGULATION: eight Good Practices have so far been identified for this activity. They are mainly related to the how the existing PTA was established (their general and regulatory framework) and include examples of public transport authorities’ different structures and roles. Some specific initiatives carried out by the Thessalhoniki public transport authorities for reserved lanes for buses and school transport have been reported, but they seem to specifically focus on the local reality and aim at aligning it with the most advanced realities.
• PLANNING: nine Good Practices have so far been identified for this activity. They present different experiences of public transport planning, ranging from the periodical updating of the planning of PT services to meet the users’ requirements to the planning of demand-responsive transport in rural areas. This last Good Practice is very close to the themes already analysed in FLIPPER and under analysis in the MOG project. Parking and public transport planning are the Topics of the other Good Practices, which concern very specific realities. The experience of the Scottish Transport Appraisal Guidance (STAG) provides a comprehensive source of advice on all aspects of the transport planning process, from the earliest stages of transport planning through appraisal and implementation to ex-post evaluation, and which could be very useful for any future capitalisation.
• TENDER/AWARD PROCESS: three Good Practices have been classified under this activity. They all deal with tendering processes and procedures for non-conventional public transport services, mainly in low-density areas. This specific focus does not take account of the important tendering problem of public transport services in large urban areas, which is much more significant.
• INTEGRATION: six Good Practices have been identified for this activity, mainly focusing on integration and intermodality through e-ticketing systems and presenting some experiences based on technological solutions applied to the specific transport situation. This Topic has been tackled by other projects and is going to be a common practice all over Europe, driven by the availability of technical products and by the need to integrate different mobility operators throughout the territory.
• PROMOTION with its five identified Good Practices, this activity includes some Good Practices of communicating with users in different ways, including online multimodal trip planners, and real-time travel information systems to provide information and improve the use of public transport. The technology used, which can be found on the market, makes up the backbone of this last kind of application solutions. Specific Good Practices demonstrate the implementation of an important public transport infrastructure within an urban development plan.
• MANAGEMENT: only one Good Practice concerns the management of a modified public transport contract.
• CONTROL: this activity includes three Good Practices all centred on public transport service control. They outline the methodology used to control and evaluate activities and services carried out by operators for defined contracts. This area seems to be homogeneous and can potentially provide useful information on a Topic closely related to the effectiveness of the service and the use of public resources.
1.7.3 RELEVANCE OF THE TOPICS ADDRESSED
If we consider the concept of sustainable mobility as a whole, the Topic of public transport authorities is certainly a niche issue, especially since it is not directly related to mobility itself, but more generally to ‘the process used to promote mobility, and particularly the use of public transport on the territory. Despite the quite abstract nature of the topics addressed, they could be of high relevance for a large number of European Regions. In fact, the challenge of achieving a more efficient and effective management (in the broadest sense) of the whole public transport process is going to be increasingly central for Public Administrations. They have to deal with increasing costs and with an increasingly diversified demand. Moreover, and even more importantly, they have to cope with the European legislations and rules for public services, competition, and tendering in these sectors.
An increase in the efficiency and effectiveness of the processes could be extremely useful to many public transport authorities in delivering better quality services or decreasing the required economic resources. But an even more important outcome could be a standardisation across Europe of the methodologies for managing all public transport services delivery processes, especially tendering and contractual aspects. This could also contribute to a more open and competitive market in the sector and to overcoming barriers across Europe.
The potential users of the project’s outcomes (if they turn out to be significant and transferable) are mainly the PTAs in charge of planning and regulating public transport or the public administrations themselves.
1.7.4 TRANSFERABILITY, DRIVERS, AND BARRIERS
The most important object of study for capitalisation is not the Good Practices identified, but the model itself; i.e., the sharing and integration of the Good Practices collected.
For the identified Good Practices, we should focus on the key elements related to the intrinsic functions of PTAs (planning, tendering, management, and control of contracts) and which provide information about the legislative framework, the organisation, the relationships with the political bodies and the operators, the operational procedures, the required skills, and so on. The feasibility study could also be a specific point from which to address this Topic and to test the developed scheme and methodology. All these findings should be included in the Position Paper and in the Guideline Paper (the two general documents have their source from the transferability analysis and other project reports).
The barriers to transferability can very and be more or less significant depending on the local context. They include:
• Differences in the legal framework;
• Economic constraints and availability of resources;
• Structure of the public transport operators in the market;
• Local transport demand and level of services provided (related to the geographical and socio-economic situation);
• Pricing strategies;
• Other Topics can be more difficult to model, such as:
º Political choices;
º Relationships between the Local Administrations and the operators (mainly the incumbents);
º Relationship with trade unions and workers;
º Citizens’ cultural attitudes toward public transport.
Better economies and services can be achieved by improving of the capacity of the public transport authorities. The drivers are therefore linked to the importance that public transport has.
- 1.8 SUM
Sustainable Urban Mobility
The SUM Project aims to promote the implementation of local/regional policies regarding sustainable urban mobility, while simultaneously trying to minimise three serious problems: CO2 emissions causing the greenhouse effect, fossil fuel dependency, which puts us in a situation of high economic and political instability, and the pollution of cities, which leads to serious consequences for citizens’ health and quality of life. SUM has two main objectives: to promote, among citizens, more sustainable urban mobility guidelines and to enable a gradual replacement in European cities of traditional vehicles in favour of electric vehicles and other clean modes of transport. Besides electric mobility, the project also focuses on biofuels and other sustainable modes, such as cycling and walking.
1.8.2 MAIN GOOD PRACTICES
In the first project year, SUM mainly addressed the electric mobility Topic. At the time of writing the partners are analysing the Good Practices related to biofuel.
The following five Good Practices related to the electric mobility Topic have been identified so far:
• The ‘Milton Keynes to trial wireless charging for electric buses’ (UK/Milton Keynes): this Good Practice is an innovative approach to charging electric buses that allows wireless charging during the day, which means that, for the first time, electric buses will be capable of the equivalent load of a diesel bus. This Good Practice is quite easily transferable as it is based on an off-the-shelf solution, but its applicability to a specific situation has to be carefully evaluated (type of service, type of buses, operational conditions, energy consumption, etc.). Implementation and operating costs must be considered as well. That is why a ‘transferability manual’ should be developed in order to evaluate its potential applicability in different environments.
• The ‘MOBI2GRID’: The Good Practice explores the interoperability between two countries (Portugal and Spain). Interoperability is a very important issue for electric mobility, since it is critical that no limitations for charging are experienced by the electric vehicle (EV) user. In this context, this Good Practice has considerable significance, since it deals with aspects that are very important for the development of electric mobility and could have a wide application all over Europe. This practice comes from an INTERREG III project that was readopted for this project.
• ‘CESPA’ (Murcia/SP): The experience focuses on the use of electric vehicles for environmental services in municipalities. This is a niche where electric vehicles could be applied with success. Many similar activities have been developed across Europe in the past 15 years.
• ‘Implementation of an Electric Vehicle charging network’ (Algarve/PT): This Good Practice includes a national initiative for promoting electric mobility. Alongside other countries in Europe, Portugal has developed a nationwide electric vehicle charging station network that is already operational. The Municipality of Faro should give a local presentation of the experience so as to share information on the opportunities/difficulties and success factors.
• ‘E-Mobility’ (Malmo/SE): The campaign ‘E-mobility’ Malmö is a project that the energy company E.ON is running in cooperation with the City of Malmö and with the support from the Swedish Energy Agency. The project aims at gaining knowledge about electric vehicles, and collecting much needed information about driving styles through a Good Practice-based tracking system, with a view to promoting electric vehicle use by citizens This Good Practice is interesting because it seeks to promote the acceptance of electric vehicles by the public and is a good example of cooperation between public and private sectors.
1.8.3 RELEVANCE OF THE TOPICS ADDRESSED
The Good Practices range from very ‘high-level’ Topics, ranging from the problem of electric mobility corridors and cross-border interoperability or the electric grids for EV charging, to very specific Topics like the use of EVs in company fleets or the installation of new EV charging points (even when integrated into the grid or based on wireless connection technology).
The first type of Good Practices could be successfully disseminated thereby contributing to the development of a European-wide standardised approach, given that this field is quickly progressing thanks to the contribution of the major players involved in European energy production and distribution.
The use of inductive (wireless) charging technologies for electric buses is an important example of solutions that can increase the use of EVs in the public transport sector. If properly assessed In terms of technology and application, this Good Practice could represent a transferable and wide-appealing solution for dissemination.
1.8.4 TRANSFERABILITY, DRIVERS, AND BARRIERS
Given the nature of the selected Good Practices, their transferability is very different.
Wireless charging for electric buses has a high degree of transferability and benefits from an important driver, i.e. the possibility of using electric buses for long public transport services, thereby overcoming the limitation of the vehicles’ autonomy. The important barrier is related to the costs of these solutions.
At the same time, the E-mobility programme in Malmö could be an easily transferable initiative since it mainly consists of a promotional initiative, but it does need to involve the cooperation of several players.
The Mobi2grid and the Mobi.e programmes are quite ambitious programmes where replication implies a very high level of coordination among the different entities and players, significant economic resources, and a large-scale approach. For these reasons, their transferability is hindered by quite a number of practical barriers such as economic availability, political engagement towards these kind of initiatives, organisational complexity, risk, lack of technological standards, etc.
- 1.9 INVOLVE
Involving the private sector in Mobility Management
INVOLVE aims to stimulate a modal shift towards more sustainable forms of travel to and in business areas of European regions, namely by improving cooperation between the public and private sector (managers, employees, and other stakeholders). The project seeks to provide tools and Good Practices for local and regional authorities designed to foster cooperation with the private sector, with a view to reducing transport problems in areas where private operators are concentrated (business areas, industrial areas, activity centres, etc.). The project focuses on the different forms of cooperation that can be set up among companies, institutions, and public bodies, with the joint target of making the employees’ and citizens’ modal choice more rational and improving the modal split in favour of public modes of transport. The focus of the project is, for this reason, spread over very different themes, all of which have the cooperation between public and private as the same common underlying element.
1.9.2 MAIN GOOD PRACTICES
Given the high number of Good Practices proposed by each partner and analysed here, we have presented the comments by Topic, highlighting the more significant Good Practices in terms of innovation and transferability.
• TRANSPORT AND LAND USE PLANNING: Involvement of the private sector in urban planning (Prague) and the UK (West Midlands) experience concerning adding land value for transport improvements are two very interesting Good Practices where transport planning is associated with land occupation and the private building sector and where transport authorities or companies ensure accessibility during the new projects and the mobility of the residents.
• REGIONAL TRANSPORT AUTHORITIES: The cooperation between transport authorities and centres of traffic attraction/generation with the objective of promoting the use of public transport is a Good Practice that can easily be transferred.
• FINANCING PUBLIC TRANSPORT: The three Good Practices applied in Spain (Madrid) are examples of public transport financing, either through co-financing the construction of metro or train stations or through sponsoring the names of Metro stations. Two other Good Practices are examples of public-private partnership: Lithuania (Klaipeda) where a long-term contract lays out cooperation between public authority and private companies, financial obligations, and reliable services; and in the Netherlands (Roermond) through a public-private partnership in mobility management.
• ENCOURAGING THE USE OF PUBLIC AND SHARED TRANSPORT: there is a much diversified set of Good Practices on this Topic, where the primary objective is to encourage the use of public transport: including proposals for the free use of public transport, the creation of special discount shops for bus subscribers, a specific shuttle bus service for young people, and special services for travel from home to work or school. Alongside other practices, we can highlight the BHLS [Buses with High Level of Service] operating within a high-demand area /dense urban area using midibuses to transport people between medical centres and hospitals. A large part of the Good Practices focus on ‘buses’, thus proving their versatility as an alternative, when promoting public transport without high costs.
• MOBILITY MANAGEMENT: The large majority of Good Practices are centred on the private sector involvement with mobility management. Thus, some Good Practices in this domain may be disseminated and transferable, with the necessary adaptation to the target region’s context. Within the set of Good Practices related to reducing car use and increasing sustainable forms of transport, we can note some good examples: ‘Mobility Management in Industrial Site Hoechst’ (Frankfurt, Hessen, Germany); the ‘Mobility manager training scheme by IVM Rhein Main’ (Frankfurt); ‘Transport Plans for enterprises in new urban developments’ (Madrid); ‘Mobility Management in newly developed areas’ (Goteborg, Sweden); ‘Sharing workspaces’ (Maastricht, South Limburg State); ‘Smarter Travel Work Places’ (Dublin) and ‘The Mobility Agent’ (Rotterdam, Amsterdam, etc)
• ITS – INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS: Two examples of ITS used in mobility management provide parking information over smart phones (Dublin and all Swiss cities), thereby subsequently reducing traffic on inner city roads by decreasing the number of cars searching for a parking space. The third example comes from the Vodafone company where employees receive a mobility budget and where they can not only choose their mode of transport, but they can also decide to work in alternative ways at home or elsewhere by also having the possibility to select the equipment they want to use, such as the type of laptop and mobile phone.
• ACCESSIBLE TRANSPORT: The door-to-door accessible transport for disabled people in the West Midlands, which enables people to keep their independence by providing access to food shopping, leisure, and social activities, is an example of a very Good Practice that can be transferable. The methodology used to identify the legal framework for operating demand-responsive transport in some projects is easily adaptable to other kinds of transport and mobility services.
• ENCOURAGING LOW-EMISSION TRANSPORTS: There are four types of Good Practices that encourage low-emission transports and the use of public transport:
1. the leasing of battery electric vehicles (Reggio Emilia Municipality);
2. encouraging cycling - through a network plan (BICIPLAN), the use of a bicycle when commuting to school (BIKETRAIN), or a public bike system accessible to private site managers;
3. promoting pedestrian mobility through installing road signs addressed at pedestrian traffic; an integrated public transport information and way-finding system passengers and pedestrians in Birmingham City Centre’ offering discounts for shoppers who paid for their parking, encouraging the use of car parks and walking within the city centre; and finally
4. the building of bus terminals by shopping mall investors.
• SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AWARENESS CAMPAIGNS: Five good examples of Good Practices aimed at promoting the use of public transport are easily transferable, although some of them are not particularly innovative: walking to school; targeted campaigns in order to raise young peoples’ awareness of public transport; cultural initiatives located on-board and at bus stops; promoting public transport on weekends (Saturday is for trams, buses and metro, Sunday is for trains and railways).
The majority of the Good Practices concern, in some way, the thematic areas of mobility management and the promotion of public and shared transport. The spectrum of applications considered is very broad, as the common factor is not the field of application, but the fact that all of the selected Good Practices involve some kind of public-private cooperation.
This project has identified some interesting Good Practices (even if the list is not yet complete since the project is still in progress) a deeper transferability analysis of which could lead to significant results with regard to their capitalisation. Some of them use quite innovative approaches that not only take account of the type of travel, but also try to reduce employees’ mobility needs.
1.9.3 RELEVANCE OF THE TOPICS ADDRESSED
The entire project, as we have just seen, is based on a common element - the cooperation between public bodies and private organisations with a view to improving the mobility system. It represents a comprehensive overview of different forms of cooperation, and it is very interesting as a sort of ‘directory’ of examples. Moreover, the reported Good Practices are quite different from each other in terms of their innovativeness, potential impact, or interest for other regions.
We must bear in mind that one of the targets of the project is to involve the largest possible number of decision-makers and policymakers in the awareness-raising process, necessary to ensure the effectiveness of the involvement process. In this respect, we must consider the project’s aim to involve stakeholders by demonstrating the effectiveness of smart solutions as relevant, which can help promote the dissemination of the Good Practices.
1.9.4 TRANSFERABILITY, DRIVERS, AND BARRIERS
Given the large number of Good Practices and policies outlined, the drivers and barriers are significantly diversified and, at this point, only some general comments can be made.
A mobility management practice implies a need for far-reaching actions that can change attitudes and behaviours. This fact represents a barrier to their application, since often only an economic rationale between costs and benefits is perceived. The adoption and implementation of an effective plan of mobility management actions requires the cooperation between several players and a strong political will. Policymakers and stakeholders need to be better informed about the benefits and mechanisms of mobility management techniques.
The drivers are not so apparent apart from the general need to improve the state of mobility or to solve some specific local situations. Therefore, incentives must be given, and actions such as the ones undertaken by this project make sense and their widespread use should be encouraged.
- 1.10 POLITE
Policy Learning in Information Technologies for Public Transport Enhancement
POLITE addresses the theme of info-mobility and Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), with the specific objectives of:
• promoting co-modality and intermodality through the use of ITS, thus leading to more sustainable mobility.
• promoting a wider deployment of ITS in European Regions and harmonising ITS standards and solutions adopted by different cities, metropolitan areas, regions, and countries as part of a process to develop common EU ITS standards.
• providing public administrations with the knowledge and skills concerning ITS tools and solutions that need to be promoted.
The project mainly addresses the area of Public Transport with different kinds of applications, providing travellers with adequate and complete information on the available modal and route choices.
1.10.2 MAIN GOOD PRACTICES
The currently selected 54 Good Practices (the report on the initial Good Practice search is dated January 2013) have been classified into 10 types:
1. Public transport legislation and regulation;
2. Reorganisation of Public transport operations into a multimodal network;
3. Cooperation among administrations;
4. ITS technical standardisation for interoperability;
5. Infrastructure measures;
6. Innovative ICT for public transport
7. Modelling tools and measures;
8. Public transport and traffic management measures;
9. Public transport information measures
10. Advanced public transport ticketing
The project as a whole focuses on ITS applications for mobility. Most of the identified Good Practices are based on the application of different kinds of intelligent mobility systems.
The most represented applications are those related to info-mobility, smart ticketing, and integrated traffic monitoring. The majority of the Good Practices selected are technological applications, based on products or technologies available on the market, but which have been significantly tailored and adapted. Some of them can also be considered as innovative; for example, the use of floating car data to monitor the state of the traffic is still quite limited in a real environment (see Good Practice ‘Torino BP’) and the complex integration planned to be undertaken in the Good Practices ‘Muoversi’ and GIM are innovative as well. Moreover, another interesting application can be seen in the ‘SmartSantander’ Good Practice, which offers a detailed and integrated set of information and promotes its widespread use among users.
1.10.3 RELEVANCE OF THE TOPICS ADDRESSED
The aspects addressed the most in the project are ticketing systems, travel planners, and traveller information systems. These represent important Topics since they allow for a more rational use of modes of transport, shorten travel time, improve the quality of trips, and enhance intermodality. For these reason, the Topic must be considered relevant for improving the state of mobility in different regions.
The implementation of similar systems relies on ITS technologies and is strictly dependent on the market availability of commercial solutions. European-wide standardisation of these systems is very important, and the project can offer an additional opportunity in this respect as well.
1.10.4 TRANSFERABILITY, DRIVERS, AND BARRIERS
The project is at an early stage and therefore clear capitalisation opportunities need to be defined. Site implementation plans will be developed during 2014 and will inform policymakers, support the case for funding, and provide the necessary details for the implementation of the selected Good Practices in real environments.
Given that some of the selected Good Practices are quite innovative and should they produce good results, they could constitute interesting showcases for capitalisation.
The general barriers to these kinds of systems are the lack of knowledge, among stakeholders, of the potential of ITS applications and of the awareness of the kinds of problems they can help solve. Moreover, the analysis, design, and management of such systems require professional skills, which cannot always be found in the public administration. Lastly, they often require significant economic resources.
The first main driver is the general high level attention to the use of these kind of solutions because technology always has a certain appeal. A second important driver might be the economic convenience which is often related to the adoption of ITS; but this aspect is often hidden and is not quick to present itself, so careful attention should be paid by the project to this aspect.
- 1.11 RITS-NET
Regions for Intelligent Transport Solutions Network
The aim of RITS-Net is to make European regions familiar with Intelligent Transport System (ITS) solutions and applications which can help solve regional transport problems. While local ITS implementation already exists in cities that are more technologically advanced, these applications can be very diverse and are generally not interoperable when the transport activities spread out across the different administrative urban boundaries. By integrating the ITS components into an integrated regional mobility plan, regions can improve their transport policies by enhancing their role as coordinators of local actions and ensuring that the local ITS applications are in line with the ITS country plans, as required by the ITS Directive.
1.11.2 MAIN GOOD PRACTICES
As for other ongoing projects, the Good Practices presented by each partner are still under evaluation. The Good Practices cover many different thematic areas and having the use of ITS as a unifying element.
TOPIC 1-TRANSPORT AND LAND USE PLANNING:
• ‘Public Transport Modelling System’ (Vidzeme/Latvia). This Good Practice describes an integrated software environment for a multimodal public transit simulation based on the principles of geo-simulation. It is a new alternative for the research of urban transport planning systems, with the benefit that it is constructed with open source software. It is an innovative product for planning methodologies applied to evaluate accessibility state/municipal, and other services by using public transport. It is especially transferable at local governance level.
TOPIC 2-REGIONAL TRANSPORT AUTHORITIES:
• ‘Traffic management’ (South Dublin County Council) – is an advanced internet based closed-circuit television system that provides a reliable basis for traffic monitoring, helping to relieve congestion and increasing safety. Not a particularly innovative system, but it does contain transferable methodologies.
• ‘Regional Good Practice in Traffic Management & Mobility (Central Macedonia Region, Greece)’ - A well-integrated regional practice in management intelligent urban mobility in the Region of Thessaloniki Region (Greece). The interesting aspect of this project is the impressive number of public entities involved in the construction of the Intelligent Urban Mobility Centre, including the Norwegian Centre for Transport Research. It is not an innovative system in terms of content, but its cooperative dimension certainly is, which means there are possible transferable methodologies.
• ‘Traffic management and mobility’ (Pleven/Bulgaria) - An innovative approach to traffic management and its relationship with public demand, which needs to be evaluated at the end of project. It includes potentially transferable innovative procedures for traffic management and certainly some methodologies for mobility management.
• ‘Development Centre Litija’ (Latvia) - An innovative approach linking tourism/mobility management, which is used in a mobile application of an e-tourist guide with GPS guidance to each attraction. The Web Touristic Portal is not particularly innovative aspect but is fully transferable.
• ‘Traffic Management and Mobility Presentation’ (Development Centre Litija, Latvia) - Traffic and mobility management with automation processes implemented by the modern Control Traffic Centre of Ljubljana. Possibly, new methodologies in mobility system management that could be transferable.
TOPIC 5-MOBILITY MANAGEMENT:
• ‘Using vehicle data to monitor traffic flow’ in Riga (Latvia) - This Good Practice describes an alternative way to provide real-time information about traffic flows to improve traffic management. It is an innovative tool for collecting information on traffic flows, but still needs time for it to prove itself and to determine whether the advantages are transferable.
TOPIC 6-ITS – INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS:
One good example of ‘ITS for Traffic Management and Mobility’ in the Marche Region (Italy). This Good Practice describes a diversified set of local measures designed to achieve more sustainable mobility. The ITS measures should support a real synergy between modes of transport through modal and fare integration. It would appear that there are no particularly innovative products or processes, but there are certainly specific methodologies which may be transferable and worthwhile;
• ‘Emergency and incident management’ (South Dublin Country Council/ Regione Marche/ Vidzeme/ Gipuzkoa/ ANATOLIKI SA/ Euroregion Pleven-Olt) – This set of Good Practices is centred on developing ITS to support emergency management and road accident service systems. Currently, there is no evidence of innovative outputs or processes. As of yet, there is no common methodology that would allow it to be further replicated by each of the partner or other regions.
TOPIC 9-SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AWARENESS CAMPAIGNS:
• ‘Mobility solutions and sustainable transport in [the] Vidzeme region’ (Latvia) - one example that shows how ITS can help the implementation of sustainable transport by linking tourism and eco-mobility. The methodology in this project is transferable to other regional planning processes.
1.11.3 RELEVANCE OF THE TOPICS ADDRESSED
ITS represent an important tool to achieve different targets: They can
• Improve the effectiveness of the transportation system;
• Achieve a better use of the available resources (public transport fleets, traffic lights, etc.);
• Provide high quality information to citizens in order to support the use of public transport and limit the impact of private car traffic on cities;
• Collect and analyse data to improve the planning potential of Regions and Public Administrations;
• Allow the integration of different modes of transport and improve intermodality;
• ITS are versatile systems that can be used in different environments and that can ensure good results at limited costs. Their availability on the market is growing fast and should be utilised to improve a better overall quality of the mobility system.
For all these reasons, the relevance of the Topic is high and the expectations of the Regions with regard to ITS are equally high.
1.11.4 TRANSFERABILITY, DRIVERS AND BARRIERS
The potential transferability is high since ITS are by nature applicable in different environments and are based on market-available solutions - leading them to be transferred. Of course, all the new applications need to have a careful design that is able to adapt technological solutions to the local conditions and realities.
The main barriers to the adoption of ITS solutions are related to the need for qualified skills for analysing the needs, designing the application, and managing its implementation. These are specialised functions and skills that cannot always be found among Public Bodies and must be acquired on the market. The lack of specific knowledge on these kinds of solutions within the regions represents a limitation for their widespread use. It is important to disseminate knowledge not only at a technical level but also to match the needs with available tools that can be applied to solve a host of related problems.
Another important barrier is the need for economic resources. At this point in time, many regions lack the necessary funds to implement such systems. The ability to evaluate the economic balance of the investments and to quantify the benefits is very important and can turn this barrier into an important driver. In fact, in the vast majority of cases, investments in ITS may lead to higher benefits than costs.
An important driver is the appeal that technologies have for a large part of the population including policymakers. This fact can facilitate the implementation of significant applications.
- 1.12 MOG
Move on Green
The goal of the Move On Green project is to increase the effectiveness of regional development policies with regard to sustainable transport in rural areas. The adoption of sustainable transport schemes by European rural areas would, in the long term, have a significant positive impact on both the environment and on the social and economic conditions of rural territories. The project contributes to this by identifying existing Good Practices and policy recommendations aimed at establishing an environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable mobility system. A project focused on transport in rural areas has to take account of the fact that the demand is always low and often spread out over the territory and that the public transport system often only plays a very marginal role. The project aims at finding solutions to ensure public transport services for these areas, seeking to adopt innovative solutions that do not involve traditional public transport line services.
1.12.2 MAIN GOOD PRACTICES
The collecting and analysing of the Good Practices is still in progress, and very limited information about the identified Good Practices has been provided (sometimes only the title). Nonetheless, we can say that MOG has clustered the Good Practices already available into six different areas:
• COMBINATION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF SERVICES FOR COST REDUCTION: this area contains solutions to combine the transportation of persons and goods (including mail) and multi-services contact points for customers in rural areas. This kind of combination can be useful in low-demand areas where a regular transport service is provided, representing a means for optimisation, even if it requires specific organisational arrangements. The practices could be relevant for more sustainable mobility solutions, but their transfer to other regions is quite limited and restricted by several constraints.
• CAR SHARING, CAR-POOLING AND OTHER ‘SHARING’ FORMULAS: even if not always clearly apparent, this area mainly contains approaches using car-pooling often supported by web applications to match up the different commuters (people who will share the same journey in the car). Car-pooling in these kinds of environment can be much more effective if it is left to individual organisation, especially when the mobility needs are systematic, (i.e. for work or school.) The car sharing solution can be a useful way to share the travel costs when the mobility needs are not frequent and represent a rational way of using private cars. In any case, different models based on low-level technology (especially on cars), simplified reservation, and access to the car can be applied to also make it possible for such schemes to be adopted in relatively small villages. Some experiments are being conducted with car-sharing schemes that are not provided by professional operators, but rather are managed by the local community. These methods and schemes represent an innovative system of car sharing in low-demand areas and could have a broad impact in several situations and regional realities.
• PROMOTION OF CYCLING: TRADITIONAL AND ELECTRIC: different approaches using with bike sharing, mainly with electric bikes in rural areas, have been identified. No details are available at the moment. As is the case for car sharing, the application of these solutions is suitable in villages, and they do not require sophisticated technologies, but bicycles and racks require maintenance and assistance when on the move. Bike sharing also seems to have a tourist value which could ensure a relatively good rate of use.
• ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY ATTITUDES TOWARDS MOBILITY: this area includes very different and specific initiatives linked to green mobility, like the use of electric mobility (charging stations in tourist areas), eco-driving courses, etc. All these initiatives have a largely localised value, limited impact, and seem to be based on widely available market solutions.
• ‘DEDICATED’ MOBILITY INITIATIVES: HEALTH/LEISURE/TOURISM: a varied set of different applications of public transport systems are being developed, ranging from a ‘Discobus’ for young people on weekends (attempts have already failed in other places), to cultural tours or discounted tickets for special users and services for physically disabled individuals. To gain a clear view of the significance of each single Good Practice, a deeper assessment is needed, but we can already say that some of the practices are not only related to transport directly but also to political decisions to subsidise transport services. A careful analysis of the success factors may be significant, not only in terms of quantitative impact but also in qualitative terms, and could therefore be transferable.
• GOVERNANCE AND COORDINATION IN THE MOBILITY FIELD: the identified Good Practices are related to the design of services in low-density areas and their optimisation, as well as to the promotion of intermodality and policies designed to support the use of public transport. The costs of the services and their low use in such areas represent the most important barrier to their adoption. That is why a careful transferability analysis must be carried out.
• TRANSPORT ON DEMAND IN RURAL AREAS: this area is related to on-demand transport with different modalities. This area is quite uniform in terms of criteria and could be of certain relevance in facing transport needs, using existing techniques specifically developed to meet this kind of demand. This Topic has already been addressed by other projects, so there could be benefits from cooperation and knowledge transfer.
1.12.3 RELEVANCE OF THE TOPICS ADDRESSED
Public transport in low-density rural areas is always very expensive and requires a high-level of subsidy from the Public Administration, especially when transport is provided using the traditional ‘line and fixed schedule’ methods. Moreover, these kinds of methods often do not match the needs and the approval of residents, so even when public transport is provided, it is scarce, thus worsening the economic balance. In addition to this, the environmental benefit of public transport in these situations is of course much lower than in higher-density areas and cities. Consequently, public transport in rural areas will in some cases be discontinued or limited to specific classes of users, such as school children, the physically disabled, and the elderly.
In these cases, the decision whether to provide public transport is mostly a political one, privileging aspects such as social inclusion, supporting weak social classes, integrating distinct territories and looking beyond a simple evaluation of economic convenience.
In addition to this, we must also bear in mind that the diffusion of the internet and of broadband web connections in these areas and the availability of an increasing number of services (both public and private) available on the web is also going to change individual’s mobility needs, limiting the necessity to travel. This process is of course slow and linked to a generational change and dependant on an increasing level of IT knowledge and use among the population.
Given this scenario, the diffusion of alternative modes designed to limit the dependence on private cars and the availability of solutions designed to reduce the cost of public transport are important factors in making it possible to provide these kinds of services, especially in the current economic situation in many European countries.
Therefore, the Topics addressed and the identified and analysed Good Practices could be important for the European regional Development Policy, namely in the following areas:
• Social inclusion
• Development of rural areas
• Elderly people / disabled people
• Improvement of public transport in low-demand areas
1.12.4 TRANSFERABILITY, DRIVERS, AND BARRIERS
Considering all the Good Practices identified by the Project so far, capitalisation could be carried out for issues regarding:
• Schemes for the use of car-sharing in low-demand areas;
• Integrated transport services (school, disabled people, goods, etc.) aimed at reducing management costs;
• Schemes and methodologies for DRT services in rural areas;
• Methods for optimising public transport in rural areas;
Capitalisation work carried out on these Topics must always bear in mind that the practical application is strictly related to the economic viability of the solutions, since the need for funding represents the most important barrier to the transferability of the techniques mentioned. Moreover, these schemes are largely affected by the local conditions, especially territorial, regulatory, and social factors, thus requiring careful feasibility analyses. Transferability is determined by aspects such as:
• The definition of the conditions under which the transfer of the selected Good Practices is possible, especially from an organisational perspective (for example, flexibility of personnel);
• The possibility of standardising criteria and methodologies for carrying out feasibility studies;
• The ability to determine the normative aspects, which can limit the implementation of services;
• The formalisation of a methodology for their economic evaluation.
The main driver is represented by the need to provide transport services to special categories of users or to particular low-demand areas, and the pressure these categories of people can exert at the political level. Another driver, which is mainly directed towards public transport companies currently providing services in rural areas, could be the availability of more economical solutions, compatible with the regulatory framework.
As already mentioned, the most significant barrier is the economical convenience and sustainability of the envisaged solutions. This analysis must also take account of the general social costs related to the use of public/private modes of transport in these situations, even if this kind of analysis is often not straightforward. Another significant barrier can also be the cultural resistance of people to adopt mobility schemes that include the use of shared vehicles and try to persuade people to stop using their own car.
- 1.13 POSSE
Promotion Open Specification and Standards in Europe
The POSSE project aims to facilitate the exchange and sharing of knowledge and experience on the development, implementation, and maintenance of open specifications and standards for ITS and traffic management systems. The strategic objective is to demonstrate how open specifications and standards for ITS systems and services can support the cost-effective delivery of the EU’s various policy objectives, particularly those relating to the environment. The operational objective of the project is to develop ITS implementation plans, focused on open specification and standards in Europe, which will set out how to deliver efficient and cost-effective tools and approaches for the management of urban transport networks to meet local, national, and EU transport policy objectives.
The main outputs of the project will be: Good Practice guidelines for the benefit of the project partners and other interested cities and regions; Implementation Plans for all cities and regions within POSSE, setting out how they will seek to implement or further develop open specifications and standards; and a wider exchange of knowledge across Europe.
1.13.2 MAIN GOOD PRACTICES
The POSSE project is currently developing a ‘Good Practice Guide’ by combining Urban Traffic Management & Control with Open Traffic Systems City Association (OCA) approaches to open specifications and standards. The aim of POSSE is not just to share information about open standards, but also to provide guidance to public authorities about all the phases of the ITS implementation process.
The Good Practice Guide will provide information on the following points:
• How to proceed - within the constraints of public procurement – with system modernisation / system re-design and procurement of a complex system in the traffic environment
• How to deal with a mixed vendor environment as a way for flexible adaptation
• How to set up organisational structures and procedures to enable stakeholders to work towards the same goal
• How to develop the technical specifications for a tender, without violating public procurement law; what procurement packages / lots are useful
In order to ensure that the guidelines are not too theoretical, they will be supported by case studies, which will show practical applications in specific contexts.
A limited number of Good Practices have been identified in this project so far. All of them focus on applying a methodology for the integration of different ITS mainly devoted to traffic management. These Good Practices concern different application environments, ranging from typical urban traffic management, to road management applications, and general transport management. The target is, of course, to demonstrate the successful application and effectiveness of open standards specification tools in different environments.
As mentioned, the general Topic is quite innovative and interesting: they outline a path to integrating different ITS in urban areas, providing the public bodies responsible with better and more efficient tools for carrying out their role.
1.13.3 RELEVANCE OF THE TOPICS ADDRESSED
City authorities, highways authorities, and universities from across Europe, and beyond, have joined the POSSE open ITS systems forum in order to learn more about open specifications and standards for ITS and to understand how they can benefit from the open systems approach adopted in the UK and Germany. The Topic of open standards in software is potentially very important since it can entail significant benefits, mainly to public administrations, and because it is currently in the spotlight. This concept can also be successfully applied in the mobility sphere, even if difficulties may arise, such as with market availability and support, development, and adoption of sufficiently broadly shared standards.
This software problem fits within a wider trend of standardising data representation methods and promotion of their widespread use in the mobility sphere, which is driven by the need for an exchange of information among different proprietary systems on a large geographical scale. Different approaches have been tried in this respect and standards have indeed been set. The project also takes account of this point by dealing with the specification process.
In any case, the overall problem is very complex; this project can help evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in different environments.
1.13.4 TRANSFERABILITY, DRIVERS, AND BARRIERS
Due to the intrinsic nature of open standards, the project must be easily transferable, and the case studies and implementation plans developed within the project will make for an interesting test bed.
There are important potential drivers for the adoption of open standards in software architectures for mobility applications: economic considerations, the re-usability of applications, flexibility in the choice of providers and in the mixing of different solutions and simplicity of use.
At the same time, there are several identifiable barriers: availability of tools and their diffusion; their maintenance and affordability; standardisation; lack of knowledge.
Demonstrating the effectiveness of approaches based on open standards is an important step towards the wider dissemination of these systems and techniques.
- 1.14 ECOTALE
External Costs of Transport and Land Equalisation
The ECOTALE project aims to integrate the traditional approach based on the ‘economic’ (or market-based) internalisation of external costs (i.e. pricing measures) by introducing criteria and policies for a wider internalisation approach, also considering land use and environmental planning. By means of disciplinary and inter-disciplinary approaches, ECOTALE promotes the exchange, sharing and transfer of policy experience, knowledge, and Good Practices in two fields:
• the internalisation of the external costs of transport
• planning and investment decisions based on the global transport cost, with regard to all the policy development phases – i.e., from understanding the problem, to implementing and improving the solution.
ECOTALE will develop and publish practical guidelines on strategies for internalising transport costs. These guidelines will be broad in scope and will include innovative approaches, with special focus on the relations between global transport costs and land use planning. Besides formulating policy recommendations, special efforts will be devoted to adapting the proposed methodologies and procedures to the various national/regional regulatory contexts, within a broad implementation-oriented approach.
1.14.2 MAIN GOOD PRACTICES
So far, 36 selected Good Practices have been identified, and the project is still working to select the ones to be included in the analysis. The different solutions adopted, not only within the Project partners, but generally across Europe have been identified and studied, enabling us to say that the project has produced significant work on the state-of-the-art solutions in relation to the internalisation of external cost.
The intention is to select four or five Good Practices and use them to carry out a specific transferability analysis that can be applied to the various project partner regions and different realities. This includes defining an implementation plan for applying the solutions aimed at internalising external costs. The purpose is clearly to create the conditions for the adoption of these solutions as real policy practices. This work will be completed in the coming months.
In carrying out the transferability analysis, particular attention must be paid (and will be paid, depending on the Project’s intentions) to the analysis of the legislative and local organisational framework, as it heavily influences the transferability of the identified Good Practices. Many issues are involved in this analysis (such as tax legislation, identification of vehicles, organisation of the Public Bodies and their competencies on transportation, etc.). The project aims to produce ‘Guidelines for transferability for each of the restricted set of selected Good Practices’. It represents a remarkable outcome of the project and could be very useful, especially in such a complex area as transport policy.
1.14.3 RELEVANCE OF THE TOPICS ADDRESSED
The problem of internalising external transport costs is acknowledged as one of the most important in achieving a good balance within the modal shift. However, the difficulty in approaching this Topic and implementing effective policies is well known. Even if it is too early to carry out a transferability analysis of the results, we can say for sure that the Topics addressed by the project are very significant in terms of interest they can have for other regions and for Europe in general.
1.14.4 TRANSFERABILITY, DRIVERS AND BARRIERS
At the moment, it is not possible to analyse in full the achievements of the project.
The barriers to the implementation of such techniques are considerable and varied.
At first, their implementation requires, in many cases, a very clear political commitment and the capacity to manage conflicts and to achieve social consensus. Additionally, in some instances, for example in order to define plans that incorporate these kinds of measures, they also require a strategic vision for the development of mobility in cities. Given these inherent difficulties, politicians and other stakeholders are often reluctant to adopt these measures, particularly those that could ultimately be most effective in internalising external costs.
A second barrier is constituted, as referred above, by the different legislative and organisational frameworks, which limit transferability and require in-depth studies and analysis on the modes of implementation. The last barrier is related to the technical difficulty of most of these measures, which requires high-level skills.
All these factors explain why the application of methods, which have proved to be effective, (like congestion charge, area pricing, or taxes linked to the mileage driven) is still limited. Their potential benefits are sometimes difficult to identify and clearly show that resistance to changes is very strong. As a result, the drivers for this approach are often not as powerful as the barriers that need to be overcome.
- 1.15 CYCLE CITIES
European cities for integrating cycling within sustainable mobility management schemes
CYCLE CITIES aims to exchange and transfer Good Practice among European cities, as well as to build up knowledge capital supporting the integration of cycling into urban mobility management schemes with a view to improving traffic conditions and the urban environment. The project will focus on different Topics related to the use of bicycles as a mobility mode: land use planning, city mobility management strategies, citizen participation practices, and cycling architectural infrastructure.
1.15.2 MAIN GOOD PRACTICES
At the moment, the partners are identifying and collecting the Good Practices. A questionnaire has been developed in order to identify the Good Practices among the eight project partners. This questionnaire will be evaluated by a panel of internal and external experts. Furthermore, a methodological guide has been produced in order to map the Good Practices on land-use planning and mobility management. The guide contains a list of the European Platform on Mobility Management (EPOMM) database cases on land use and transport planning. Other reference documents produced include a methodology for the organisation of interregional study visits and interregional workshops. The themes suggested for these interregional workshops, in which the selected Good Practices will be debated, are the following:
• Planning & Design of cycle infrastructure within the overall transport infrastructure;
• Cycling & Mobility management;
• Funding & Implementation procedures for cycling schemes;
• Implementation & Evaluation of cycling policies for sustainable mobility strategies;
• Intelligent Systems for cycling in mobility schemes;
• Institutional issues for cycling and mobility;
• Supportive Transport & Urban Planning policies for cycling.
In the methodological guide for organising the workshops, special importance is placed on the EU projects relevant to CYCLE CITIES. This could be a useful tool to exploit synergies among the projects.
By searching the EPOMM portal, it is possible to note that some of the partners have introduced Good Practices in the database. Examples that could be internalised into the project include the ‘Leipzig tripling the number of bicycle riders’ from the city of Leipzig and ‘Integrated mobility strategy for trade fairs‘ in Genoa/Italy.
1.15.3 RELEVANCE OF THE TOPICS ADDRESSED
The Topics to be addressed are important for the sustainable transport theme. The project focuses on integrating cycling into urban mobility management schemes. The cycling and mobility management are core Topics for the sustainable transport agenda. The project has an integrated strategy for these Topics.
Cycling does not generate emissions and allows people to perform physical activity in their daily routines, can improve their health, and save them money. Nevertheless, the benefits of cycling cannot be realised without an integrated vision of mobility in the city/region, associated with the existence of physical infrastructures (bike lanes, signals, etc), promotion of the service and other facilities like racks, assistance, among others. For this reason, an integrated approach of cycling and mobility management should be performed in order to increase the success of these actions.
1.15.4 TRANSFERABILITY, DRIVERS AND BARRIER
Cycling is drawing practitioners’ and policymakers’ attention as an effective mobility mode, capable of substituting the use of cars for short to mid-distance journeys in urban environments. At the same time, bike-sharing systems are experiencing a moment of great popularity and their use is becoming more widespread, notwithstanding the fact that cycling systems are often expensive and are not cost-effective in terms of the overall economic balance. So there is no great need for drivers to draw the attention of decision-makers on this Topic, and significant barriers are not encountered.
But this attention is often only linked to ‘popular’ aspects; it is much more difficult to create the conditions required for including cycling naturally in the urban mobility framework. There is a need for infrastructures to ensure safety and for a real network of bike paths and, generally speaking, an integrated environment, which could allow the systematic use of bicycles.
In this respect, significant barriers could be encountered in the structure of our cities, which create significant constraints for these kinds of infrastructures, namely the need for economic resources and the low capacity for planning and designing these new mobility patterns. So it is very important to clearly demonstrate the relevance and the need for an integrated approach to cycling.
2. SELECTED GOOD PRACTICES AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This Chapter provides details on the 15 Good Practices that were chosen for their transferability value. It identifies the Topic they cover, gives reasons to why they were selected as exemplary Good Practices and also provides tailored recommendations. At the end of this Chapter, some general recommendations are given with regard to the capitalisation of the selected Good Practices. For further details, a description of seven exemplary Good Practices is also explored in Annexe 4 – Exemplary Good Practices.
The selected Good Practices are resumed in the next table.
|SELECTED GOOD PRACTICES||Main Characteristics|
|Flexible transport with low technology services in rural areas |
Purbach, Austria – FLIPPER
|An eight-seat bus with a low floor can be ordered by calling the driver directly. It provides a door-to-door service.|
|Cross-border trip information planner |
ZTM Warsaw, PL / VBB Berlin – CAPRICE
|Web based integrated door-to-door public transport trip planner, which has the unique feature of being integrated at the cross-border level (Berlin/Warsaw)|
|Accessibility for reduced mobility |
Marche Region, IT – MMOVE
|Eliminates physical and sensorial obstacles that prevent access to disabled (visually impaired) individuals in municipality.|
|Innovative schemes for tendering and contracting public transport|
ZTM Warsaw, PL – CAPRICE
|Public transport innovative tendering schemes involving private initiatives in transport services.|
|Regional Transport, Mobility Management and Spatial Planning |
Stockholm – SE – PIMMS CAPITAL
|Integrated approach linking land use and transport planning.|
|Option for a sustainable public transport - Tram Extension: tram line in Ulm/ Neu-Ulm |
Reggio Emilia, IT – MMOVE
|Transfer to another region of the plans for an implemented tramway system and its extension feasibility study|
|Integration of fares|
Treviso, IT - PIMMS CAPITAL
|New electronic travel card enabling users to travel by coach throughout the urban network, aimed at promoting the use of public transport and allowing more convenient and flexible travel.|
Brighton&Hove, UK – MMOVE
|Promoting softer/smarter travel choices by offering more sustainable and healthy travel options that will therefore deliver wider policy objectives in a cost-effective manner|
|Participative approach in the Gothenburg region|
Gothenburg region, SE – CATCH_MR
|An approach to move from plan to process by introducing more sharing, transparency and flexibility into the planning process, with a view to achieving consensus and consistency over time.|
|The ideal intermodal node – Guidebook on intermodality in the Gothenburg region|
Gothenburg Region, SE – CATCH_MR
|Looks at how an intermodal node/interchange can be designed, taking account of all relevant aspects.|
|Integrated public transport systems of Berlin and Paris|
Berlin and Paris – CAPRICE
|The implementation of integrated public transport systems conducted in Berlin and Paris illustrates how the cooperation between authorities regarding public transport service contracting can be realised through knowledge transfer.|
|Quality Bus Partnership|
Brighton & Hove – UK – MMOVE
|Fostering new and more efficient ways of moving through and interacting with the city/region by providing travellers with more flexible, convenient, and integrated travel options.|
|Integrated Transport Strategy|
West Midlands County Region – UK – PIMMS CAPITAL
|Promoting public engagement and consultation, including the involvement of minority groups and disability groups, establishing governance arrangements with partnering authorities, developing integrated transport strategies.|
|Worcester Sustainable Travel Demonstration Town (STT)|
Worcestershire County Council – UK – PIMMS CAPITAL
|Enhancing the efficiency of the transport network, capitalising on the development of sustainable infrastructure, improving transport services, and delivering intuitive smarter measure choices.|
|Local travel plan networks (Better Bankside & Cambridge Science Park)|
Cambridge/London – UK – PIMMS TRANSFER
|A package of measures which aims to reduce the need to travel and encourages all those working in, living in and visiting Bankside, to select the most sustainable mode of transport for their journey to, from, and within the Bankside area.|
For each selected Good Practice, the description and the reason why it was chosen as an exemplary Good Practice can be found below.
SELECTED GOOD PRACTICES
- Flexible transport with low technology services in rural areas
- * Topic 5 – Mobility Management
- Purbach, Austria - FLIPPER Good Practice #7
Purbach is a small and relatively compact town (population of 2700) with rural surroundings located next to lake Neusiedl, an important recreational area for the surrounding regions, especially for the inhabitants of Vienna, with a travel distance of about 1 hour. Before the launch of the flexible transport system, which is called ‘GmoaBus’, there was no public transport available for trips within the town, as the regional bus line and the railway line serve only one stop. The GmoaBus is operated with a single eight seat bus with low floor and double-wing door. There is no taxi operator in the town. It can be ordered only by calling the driver directly and provides a door-to-door service from and to any addresses within the town. No dispatch centre or software is used. Operation times are Mondays to Fridays from 5 am to 9 pm and on Saturdays from 8 am to 12 am. There is no service on Sundays and public holidays.
WHY IT WAS CHOSEN AS AN EXEMPLARY PRACTICE
An efficient public transport system is key to having economic sustainability and social welfare. Adapting the public transport offer to the demand requires a strategy to break private car-driving routines and promote quality public transport. This is the technique adopted by the on-demand services, which are quite widely used in semi-urban environments or during the night time in urban areas. They are based on the use of specific technologies to manage the service, which require investments and management costs. This Good Practice applies the on-demand techniques in a rural area with a very low-demand, using a very simple scheme without expensive technology. Being low-cost means it can provide wide accessibility for low-demand areas. There are many regions throughout Europe potentially interested in using this model. A noteworthy aspect is that the project has prepared design guidelines and a benchmarking tool for interested regions.
This good practice places emphasis on the European priority of social inclusion/development of rural areas, especially in the regions where suburbanisation is an important barrier.
This good practice may have to be adapted to some extent to be fully transferable to other regions, and it is important to have a specific design and local analysis assessment.
The main driver is the need to provide transport services to special categories of users or to particular low-demand areas. Particularly favourable situations are low-demand areas where there is regular line service, which can be replaced by DRT, or a new neighbourhood to be provided with PT, or rural areas where different kinds of special transport services can be integrated into a DRT scheme, which optimises resources.
The most significant barrier is the economic convenience and sustainability of the service, which means that careful design must always be carried out to analyse the most suitable service scheme, technology, and economic viability. This analysis should also take account of the general social costs related to the use of public/private modes of transport in these situations.
Additional information about Flexible Transport: FLIPPER Project Virtual Library (http://www.flexibletransport.org/)
- * Topic 5 – Mobility Management
- Cross-border trip information planners
- * Topic 4– Encouraging the use of public and shared transport
- ZTM Warsaw, PL / VBB Berlin – CAPRICE Good Practice #9
The VBB travel planner, VBBFahrinfo, is an Internet-based public transport routing system, which can be used via a computer or mobile phone. It calculates the routes between two points in the Berlin-Brandenburg region. The travel planner covers the entire Berlin-Brandenburg area with its existing 41 transport operators and is available for free on the Internet (www.vbb-fahrinfo.de) and on mobile devices. One key output of the CAPRICE project is the development and implementation of a travel planner system for the Warsaw metropolitan region based on the exchange of experiences between the VBB travel planner and ZTM Warsaw. The door-to-door travel planner is a good example of integrating different modes of transport in regions through the use of a user-friendly technology).
WHY IT WAS CHOSEN AS AN EXEMPLARY GOOD PRACTICE
Trip planners are currently quite well established (even if they are not being used to their full extent), and the current trend is to implement multi-modal integrated door-to-door trip planners.
This Good Practice is related to an integrated door-to-door public transport trip planner, which has the unique feature of being integrated at the cross-border level. Cross-border trip planners are not common, owing to institutional, operational, and linguistic barriers. It could also be easily transferred to many border regions, where connections between the two Regions are frequent and integrated. This situation is quite common in many European areas. Moreover, many Regions now implement trip planners for their own transport network, so this technique could offer an additional significant feature to the travel management tools already adopted by many regions.
The tool is web-based and uses off-the-shelf technologies, meaning that any transferability would need to be tailored. Nevertheless, it can be used as an interesting example for the development of trip planners.
Web-based planners facilitate modal shift and are drivers that promote the use of intelligent systems (multimodal scheduling, information, online reservations, and smart ticketing).
The most important driver of such an application is the fact that it often only requires the development of already existing tools, which are increasingly common among European regions, to adapt the transport offer according to the real mobility needs.
The most important barrier is the need for coordination among the various transport authorities and operators involved. The integration of different systems to ensure data coherence and maintenance over time also constitutes a technical barrier.
- * Topic 4– Encouraging the use of public and shared transport
- Accessibility for reduced mobility
- * Topic 5 – Mobility Management
- Marche Region, IT – MMOVE Good Practice #19
The Municipality of San Benedetto del Tronto - aims at eliminating physical and sensorial obstacles that prevent access to disabled individuals by improving the use of signals that enable visually impaired individuals to decode the environment, safely and without error.
WHY IT WAS CHOSEN AS AN EXEMPLARY GOOD PRACTICE
This practice is noteworthy since it addresses a Topic that is perfectly in line with EU priority issues (i.e. inclusivity).
Regulators and operators should increase the number of initiatives aimed at promoting accessibility to reduced mobility travellers in their regions. These measures do not only imply costly infrastructures allowing the disabled to overcome physical barriers, but can also be ‘soft measures’ linked to personal assistance. Accessible information about transport systems and about the environment is fundamental for visually impaired travellers and represents a significant step forward in promoting accessibility to public services for this category of users. The necessary interventions are not so expensive and can be adopted quite easily.
These practices therefore have a high potential for being transferred to other regions and a very broad potential application, since they address a common and widespread need.
Of course, the specific implementation requires design work strictly related to the application environment.
One important driver to attract additional demand (passengers) is to provide higher accessibility levels. Another important condition to ease the implementation is the presence, in the territory, of a representative and active association of visually impaired people that policymakers can work with.
Barriers include the attitudes of the transport authorities responsible and the high cost involved, should infrastructure require adapting.
- * Topic 5 – Mobility Management
- Innovative schemes for tendering and contracting public transport
- * Topic 2 – regional Transport Authorities
- ZTM Warsaw, PL – CAPRICE Good Practice #5
As a form of outsourcing local bus transport services tendering has been developed in Warsaw since the early 1990s. The first idea was to ensure the growing needs for vehicles are correctly met in the fast developing Warsaw metropolitan area by involving private initiatives in the public transport service. Private companies were chosen during open and competitive tenders. New, high quality, low-floor buses have now become a mandatory precondition for the winner of any tender. And in parallel to the increase in quality and in number of new fleets, the services now enjoy lower costs as a result of the competition.
WHY IT WAS CHOSEN AS AN EXEMPLARY GOOD PRACTICE
Public transport in new Member States was traditionally operated by public companies according to traditional schemes, both in terms of operations and financing, where the modal share of public transport was generally ensured by a low use of private cars. Today the situation is completely different, and public transport in large towns reflects the same trends and problems as in the rest of Europe.
This Good Practice in not innovative in principle, but the added-value lies in the way the transition can take place, from a transport system that is completely managed by public entities to a more diversified governance solution. Warsaw faced the problem of having to respond to the growing need for vehicles for the fast developing Warsaw metropolitan area. This problem was tackled by involving private initiatives. The solution applied was a tendering process to set up this new kind of service.
This Good Practice can potentially be transferred to regions where the public transport is mainly in the public sector, And where there is a policy to transfer the services to a mixed public-private system.
Terms of reference and procedures regarding tendering and implementation monitoring are important to facilitate the transferability of the good practice, and a list of procedures about tendering has been transferred from ZTM (Warsaw) to other CAPRICE partners.
One of the challenges of implementation is the need to involve private entities in a predominantly publicly managed market.
- * Topic 2 – regional Transport Authorities
- regional Transport, Mobility Management and Spatial Planning
- * Topic 2 - regional Transport Authorities
- Stockholm - SE – PIMMS CAPITAL Good Practice #8
All the authorities in a region responsible for transport, traffic, and/or land-use planning are involved in the integrated planning process. In an initial phase preceding the proposal of suitable measures, the future regional transport requirements are now analysed on a system level. Both the regional Development Plan, and the regional Infrastructure Investment Plan now includes mobility management to a certain extent.
WHY IT WAS CHOSEN AS AN EXEMPLARY GOOD PRACTICE
The integration of regional Transport, Mobility Management, and Spatial Planning in a cooperative approach is a way to link different (technical and financial) visions and to integrate the concept of sustainability into regional transport planning. This integration of land use and transport planning is now widely acknowledged among experts as one of the main tools to ensure a balanced development of urban areas and environmental protection. However, it does represent a real methodological revolution for the large majority of Regions and Administrative Bodies and has proved itself difficult to carry out for many internal and external reasons. Moreover, it requires constant work over long periods, which is often hindered by the frequent changes in the political set-up.
In any case, it is a priority for Regional Administrations and the related planning Structures to better integrate the various aspects of urban planning (notably transport planning).
Moreover, this practice requires the coordinated actions of several players, therefore their cooperation is essential, which means that initially shared objectives and visions must be fixed.
This Good Practice represents a possible means to successfully pursuing this objective. Moreover, it is also an example of how the new mobility plans resulting from this new approach can take account of not only infrastructures as a means to respond to mobility needs, but also actions based on demand management.
The Good Practice is related to a specific policy, which means that transferability involves the adoption of this policy by another Region, which could benefit from the example and the adopted mechanisms, but would need to adapt them to the local political and administrative reality and to the specific cultural context.
- * Topic 2 - regional Transport Authorities
- Option for a sustainable public transport - Tram Extension: tram line in Ulm/ Neu-Ulm
- * Topic 4 Encouraging the use of public and shared transport
- Reggio Emilia MMOVE Good Practice #9
The twin city of Ulm/ Neu-Ulm once operated a large tram network. After world war II, this network was gradually replaced by bus routes. Only one single route has survived until today. It is remarkable noteworthy that this single route accounts for more than a third of the whole annual passenger load of all the routes. It is a fact that trams are more accepted by people than buses. The need for a sustainable long-term concept led to the building of a 5km tram extension in 2009. Both cities understand the need for good, reliable, and sustainable PT system, which is also required by the inhabitants and by the daily commuters.
WHY IT WAS CHOSEN AS AN EXEMPLARY GOOD PRACTICE
This good practice shows the transfer of the plans for an implemented tramway system and its extension feasibility study to another region with no pre-existing tram/ tram train system. It represents an infrastructural development to improve public transport enhancing an existing trunk-line.
Although not innovative in itself, the option for such a non-polluting, intermediate transport system, especially one that uses a partially existing (train) infrastructure, constitutes an added-value and comes under the EU (TEN-T and White Paper) priorities. The transfer of the project is currently encountering significant barriers, regarding cost and – in this case – the need for institutional cooperation among three levels of government. In addition, planning and implementation time has had to be protracted (up to 10 years).
- * Topic 4 Encouraging the use of public and shared transport
- Integration of fares
- * Topic 6 ITS – Intelligent Transport Systems
- Treviso, IT - PIMMS CAPITAL Good Practice #10
ACTIVO is a new electronic travel card enabling users to travel by coach throughout the Eastern Veneto and Treviso urban network. The new electronic travel card adopted on the networks of the bus companies, ACTT and ACTIVO, promotes the use of public transport and allows for more convenient and flexible travel, thanks to the ‘contact-less’ technology that makes it possible to swipe the card at the card reader to obtain useful travel information. The ACTIVO card enables users to store several different travel tickets (for example a monthly ticket and a multi-ride ticket) and guarantees greater mobility and savings.
WHY IT WAS CHOSEN AS AN EXEMPLARY GOOD PRACTICE
The integration of fares, multi-modal use, and travel information is one of the key aspects used to facilitate the use of public transport and to foster intermodality. Promoting new technologies, like intelligent travel cards, allows for more convenient and flexible travel. This Good Practice is a good example of the use of Intelligent Transport Systems applied to the intelligent management of transportation systems. The integration of travel information into a ticketing system is particularly original.
However, these integrated ticketing systems should also seek to integrate services such as Park&Ride and other mobility modes including bike sharing and car sharing (which is not present in Treviso), given that there is a European trend to focus on this.
The Good Practice is equally important because, generally, these integrated ticketing systems are conceived for large cities. Therefore, this Good Practice demonstrates the effectiveness of the use of these techniques in small cities possessing a good public transport service.
The application is, of course, mainly based on technological solutions. The transferability implies long and complex groundwork involving specification, design and adaptation. But the market currently provides several solutions, and the Good Practice could be transferred to many other Regions with similar characteristics.
It is clear what the drivers are: these systems are efficient since they ensure a lower level of fare evasion, represent a significant quality improvement and can also be economically convenient.
The barriers are equally considerable: the implementation requires the cooperation of all the operators involved and the set-up of a complex and clear mechanism involving organisational changes for all parties involved; a specialised professional with very high technical skills is required to oversee the overall process; these systems are quite costly and usually require a step-by-step implementation over a long period.
Strong political will is necessary to ensure cooperation among all the different players affected by the changes and to coordinate their actions.
- * Topic 6 ITS – Intelligent Transport Systems
- Awareness campaigns
- * Topic 9 - Sustainable Transport Awareness Campaigns
- Brighton&Hove, UK – MMOVE Good Practice # 27
The JourneyOn marketing campaign promotes sustainable transport and health messages in Brighton & Hove. The initiative promotes softer/smarter travel choices by offering more sustainable and healthy travel options that will therefore deliver wider policy objectives in a cost-effective manner. The project is delivered through many different media – website, events, and publicity campaigns – and is designed to engage people from a variety of backgrounds/communities. The JourneyOn campaign uses innovative promotional activities, online blogging competitions, and a series of large-scale free public events, alongside more traditional campaigns, such as billboards and radio adverts to reach the various audiences of the city. There is also a website – journeyon.co.uk – that offers real-time bus, traffic, and car parking information to citizens. The unique journey planner compares different travel modes across the city, comparing costs, carbon emissions. It integrates Google maps and a gradient feature and can help users to measure the amount of calories they would burn if they walked or cycled up one of the city’s hills.
WHY IT WAS CHOSEN AS AN EXEMPLARY GOOD PRACTICE
Awareness/education campaigns are ‘soft measures’ that usually have a gradual influencing impact. They try to modify the attitudes of citizens towards mobility by promoting more sustainable behaviours (in line with the Transport White Paper). These types of actions surely cannot, by themselves, modify the balance of mobility in the short term, but must not be disregarded because a change in the traveller’s attitude is very important for supporting any new opportunity for sustainable mobility presented by transport operators or by public administrations.
These marketing strategies for the transport system are a major and comprehensive way of disseminating the advantages of using public transport, including marketing campaigns, online journey planners and, more recently, blogging and twitting (including responsive systems by transport operators). This integrated and broad approach to a communication/PR campaign for mobility and the use of innovative tools, such as a trip planner providing environmental information and indicators, is original and leading-edge.
All these concepts reinforce the relationship of the transportation system with society and have a high potential for transfer to other regions. The transferability is easy, since the Good Practice is based on simple actions and common tools. Ensuring coordination between all the entities providing the information is one of the major barriers to the success of this good practice, so efficient and influential coordination is required. Costs can also be considered another barrier, but there is always the possibility for the actions to be modulated depending on the budget.
The main driver lies in the fact that such initiatives do not encounter particular resistance to implementation and provide substantial visibility to policymakers and institutions
- * Topic 9 - Sustainable Transport Awareness Campaigns
- Participative approach in the Gothenburg region
- * Topic 1 – Land Use And Transport Planning
- Gothenburg region, SE – CATCH_MR Good Practice # 4
A participative approach that includes political consultation rounds with the Gothenburg Region’s (GR) thirteen municipal councils. Although the GR regional planning authority has the possibility to apply formal governance it has chosen informal governance to give the member municipalities the opportunity to be convinced and act by themselves. To enable joint responsibility, the GR decided to introduce more sharing, transparency, and flexibility into the planning process in order to achieve consensus and consistency over time. Therefore, a constructive dialogue between the GR executive board and the municipalities’ member council was established based on a common vision for sustainable development. Four regional consultation rounds have been carried out so far. The first one dealt with what issues to cooperate on (timeframe: 10/2002-02/2004), while the second focused on how to cooperate (01-10/2005). In the third and fourth sessions, the stakeholders identified regional goals and strategies on sustainable growth focusing on a sustainable regional structure (01-03/2006, 02-03/2008)
WHY IT WAS CHOSEN AS AN EXEMPLARY GOOD PRACTICE
This good practice shows an informal participative approach to planning/organisational aspects that is distinctive from the normal approach to this Topic. Traditionally, planning was only supported by a quantitative approach to understanding travel demand patterns, and decisions were mostly taken based on time and costs.
More and more often, complex actions are being met with resistance by some stakeholders and need long periods to be implemented, involving difficult conflict management processes. The current trend is to involve, right from the idea’s conception, citizens and all the stakeholders in the most important planning actions. This has several benefits: qualitative information given by citizen participation is useful to planners to evaluate the impact of interventions; their involvement is a means to mediate between different interests and find shared solutions, avoiding more complex managing actions in later stages; a more complete set of information (even informal) gives benefits to the design process and allows social variables be better taken into account. The integration of social and environmental approaches is one of the key aspects of promoting sustainability concepts in transport systems.
This practice is an innovative way of gaining legitimacy, acceptance, and a long term vision for the transport system in a city or region. With a consensual and integrated vision from all stakeholders in terms of environmental, economic, and social aspects, the planning and decision-making process could be facilitated and easily operated in the city/region. Moreover, this convergence can ensure a higher stability of the selected solutions with respect to political changes. This strength is particularly important as planning actions often require a timeframe that is longer than the political mandates.
The process used to manage this kind of approach is quite complex and challenging for public administrations, but, so far, it seems to have produced good results. This complexity is an important barrier, so the outcomes of this Good Practice could be a significant incentive for the policymakers involved.
The main driver is given by the need to have efficient tools to manage complex planning procedures; this need is shared by almost all the Regions, so the dissemination of this practice could be potentially broad.
As for all these policies, transferral implies careful tailoring to the realities of the importing region.
- * Topic 1 – Land Use And Transport Planning
- The ideal intermodal node – Guidebook on intermodality in the Gothenburg region
- * Topic 1 – Land Use And Transport Planning
- Gothenburg Region, SE – CATCH_MR Good Practice # 12
The practice describes how an intermodal node/interchange can be designed, taking account of all the relevant aspects. It highlights the importance of developing a common language and understanding that all different disciplines (e.g., traffic engineering, urban design) may be related. It provides a design suggestion, which brings the most important factor into focus – i.e., the individuals who will be using the intermodal node.
WHY IT WAS CHOSEN AS AN EXEMPLARY GOOD PRACTICE
The Good Practice is related to modal integration through effective interchange practices. The thematic area of transport interfaces is a very important issue in transport policies in metropolitan areas since it prompts an integrated vision of private and public modes of transport, and the effectiveness of such policies could significantly improve the use of public transport at the expense of private cars. Of course, the specific solutions must be analysed one by one, so as to take account of the specific features of the demand, of the territory and of the mobility system. With this purpose, a guidebook on intermodality in the Gothenburg region was developed within the CATCH_MR project, with a view to providing guidelines on how to design an intermodal node. This 32 -page guidebook is available on the project’s website, but has limitations in terms of capitalisation since it is so far only available in Swedish. Besides this guide on intermodality, another manual was developed in one of the other projects analysed. The PIMMS TRANSFER project is a good practice related to the ‘Design and management of interchanges in London – Good Practice#1’, which is another good example of intermodal nodes. This manual is in English, which facilitates the transfer potential.
- * Topic 1 – Land Use And Transport Planning
- Integrated public transport systems of Berlin and Paris
- * Topic 2 – regional Transport Authorities
- Berlin and Paris – CAPRICE Good Practice # 3
The cities of Vilnius, Warsaw, and Bucharest showed great interest in learning from the experiences conducted in Berlin and Paris concerning the implementation of integrated public transport systems. One key output of the CAPRICE project was the support given to the City of Bucharest in preparing a public transport service contract with the surface transport operator (Regia Autonoma de Transport Bucuresti – RATB.
WHY IT WAS CHOSEN AS AN EXEMPLARY GOOD PRACTICE
This case is a successful example of Good Practice transfer between metropolitan regions. It illustrates how cooperation between authorities regarding public transport service contracting can be realised through knowledge transfer. A RATP draft contract was adapted and transferred to others authorities.
The preparation of a service contract for a large city is a very complex task, involving many specialised competences and requiring precise coordination. But many of the concepts underlying a service contract for transportation services can be transferred to other environments. Cooperation between public administrations and authorities designed to simplify the task is possible and can lead to savings and better results.
This Good Practice could be transferred among Authorities of the same size and with the same general environment
- * Topic 2 – regional Transport Authorities
- Quality Bus Partnership
- * Topic 4 – Encouraging the Use of Public and Shared Transport
- Brighton & Hove – UK, – MMOVE Good Practice # 4
The Quality Bus Partnership is an agreement between Brighton & Hove City Council, responsible for the highway infrastructure, and bus companies that aims at jointly providing improvements to the public transport system. The City Council has invested significantly over many years in infrastructures, such as accessible bus stops, bus shelters, real-time information panels, bus lanes and traffic signal technology. At the same time, the bus companies have provided significant annual investments in modern, accessible, low emission bus fleets, an on-board GPS vehicle tracking system (with real-time indicator panels), staff training in customer care, improved service frequency, and value for money fares. The result of these measures has been a rise in passenger numbers of approximately 5% per year, in contrast to a downward UK national trend. This equates to a rise from 22 million passenger journeys per year in the mid-1990s, to nearly 40 million in 2008.
WHY IT WAS CHOSEN AS AN EXEMPLARY GOOD PRACTICE
All the strategies presented in the Good Practice promote new and more efficient ways of moving through and interacting with the city/region by providing travellers with more flexible, convenient, and integrated travel options. This Good Practice is related to key themes of sustainable transport, such as intelligent transport systems that provide real-time information to travellers, low-emission transports, and technological improvements that are important steps towards the sustainability of transportation.
This good practice includes a long-term strategy to increase modal shift, and the results are very satisfactory. It can represent a model for gradually improving the quality of public transport through the harmonisation of public and private actions. Other Regions could exploit this good practice and internalise it, totally or partially. It should be highlighted that these results might take different forms if applied in other Regions, where differences in local needs, levels of economic development, culture, economic structures, and transport systems must be taken into consideration.
The driver is mainly the need/will to improve the quality of public transport in order to attract new users. The barriers are the lack of focus on quality, among many operators and the need for significant financial resources.
- * Topic 4 – Encouraging the Use of Public and Shared Transport
- Integrated Transport Strategy
- * Topic 1 – regional Transport Authorities
- West Midlands County Region – UK, – PIMMS CAPITAL Good Practice # 4
The West Midlands Integrated Transport Strategy is based on:• public engagement and consultation, including the involvement of minority groups and disability groups,
• establishing governance arrangements with partnering authorities,
• developing integrated transport strategies in close collaboration with businesses and private sector partners,
• establishing strong links between transport and the economic and spatial strategies for the region,
• developing an evidence base and robust business cases for investment,
• addressing environmental issues including carbon reduction and changing transport behaviour,
• preparing Transport Investment Plans, Market Research and Intelligence gathering, and
• developing social inclusion measures and accessibility planning
WHY IT WAS CHOSEN AS AN EXEMPLARY GOOD PRACTICE
This Good Practice includes factors and issues that are not usually addressed in transport planning. Integrated transport planning, either by addressing the private sector or acknowledging the interaction between transport and other social and economic systems, is essential to the success of a sustainable transport vision. With regards to its transferability, it largely depends on the institutional environment in each region that potentially might implement the Good Practice.
- * Topic 1 – regional Transport Authorities
- Worcester Sustainable Travel Demonstration Town (STT)
- * Topic 4 – Encouraging the Use of Public and Shared Transport
- Worcestershire County Council – UK, – PIMMS CAPITAL Good Practice # 6
Worcestershire County Council has sought to significantly enhance the efficiency of its transport network, capitalising on the development of sustainable infrastructure, improving transport services, and delivering intuitive smarter measure choices. This has improved user safety and increased accessibility to services and facilities that are essential for a high quality of life, led in a healthy, sustainable way. The combination of infrastructure and soft transport measures was designed to ‘lead to a city that has a vital and bustling economy, with residents and visitors that can easily move around in a way that not only tackles environmental issues but also addresses social exclusion.’
WHY IT WAS CHOSEN AS AN EXEMPLARY GOOD PRACTICE
This good practice is related to the safety and accessibility aspects of the transportation system. Traffic safety policies attempt to minimise the likelihood of accidents/injuries associated with risky behaviour. Accessibility means productivity and an efficient transport system is key to economic and social development. This good practice represents a way to promote the overall health and economic welfare and also to promote the liveability of the city/region for citizens. Of course, it is the result of long-lasting effort of planning new developments and modifications in line with the mentioned ‘safety and accessibility’ paradigm.
For this reason, this Good Practice is an example of the results that can be achieved through an integrated approach to city development, which considers both integrated infrastructural interventions and soft measures. In this case, as in others, the object of transferability is not the Good Practice in itself, but the underlying policy, which must be adapted to the local conditions.
As for all innovative policies, the main barrier is the psychological constraints of the policymakers and planners, where a concrete example can function as an effective catalyst.
- * Topic 4 – Encouraging the Use of Public and Shared Transport
- Local travel plan networks (Better Bankside and Cambridge Science Park)
- * Topic 1 – regional Transport Authorities
- East Anglia Cambridge – UK, – PIMMS TRANSFER Good Practice # 8
The Better Bankside Travel Plan is a package of measures and initiatives that aims to reduce the need to travel and encourages all those working in, living in and visiting Bankside, to select the most sustainable mode of transport for their journey to, from, and within the Bankside area. The Better Bankside travel programme includes: installing some 50 new cycle stands in public areas in collaboration with other partners; Bikefest, a programme of events offering local employees bike servicing, a folding bike road show, advice on bicycle security, and guided bike rides; a programme of guided walks and a link from the online interactive map and travel tools on the Better Bankside website to the Walk2Go website, which details 50 walking routes in the Bankside area; promoting travel planning to member businesses, including the Bankside launch of Transport for London’s Enterprise scheme for small and medium-sized enterprises; support for the idea of closing Stoney Street to traffic when the Borough Market is operating. The travel plan network benefits include: access to a commuter centre; discounts with local bicycle stores; seasonal train ticket discounts; car sharing information; bicycle ‘freebies’; pedometers (for encouraging walking to work or lunchtime walks); free usage of a pool of electric bikes; a commuter centre open to employees who work across the area to visit and obtain advice and information on sustainable transport options.
WHY IT WAS CHOSEN AS AN EXEMPLARY GOOD PRACTICE
The Topic addressed by this Good Practice is Mobility Management, a very common one in the Projects analysed. It is called the ‘Better Bankside Travel Plan’, but it is much more than a specific travel plan. It is a very complete and a complementary package of different promotional initiatives offering a series of benefits to the user, which contribute to reducing car traffic.
The measures focus on bicycles, but allow for the integration of other travel modes, so as to promote intermodality when needed.
The Good Practice is noteworthy in its comprehensiveness and the use of the approach over a significant geographic area.
This good practice is important because it is designed to break the driving routine, to share the transportation modes in the public space and to integrate sustainable mobility modes like walking and biking.
It is important to note that the plan includes specific interventions to provide real mobility facilities, but also the related actions to promote them and promote their use/ acceptance by the potential users.
The format of the plan is transferable to other Regions, but it may require some adapting in order to be effective (mainly caused by different local situations, needs, and cultures).
The barrier is the certain complexity involved in defining and implementing such an integrated plan.
- * Topic 1 – regional Transport Authorities
Among the fifteen selected Good Practices that present innovative aspects or results, likely to be transferred, we can provide some tailored recommendations:
- To involve private entities in a predominantly public operator market/segment;
- To adapt mechanisms to the local political and administrative contexts and to the specific cultural environment;
- To promote the coordination between all the entities that provide transport-related information;
- To possess efficient tools designed to manage complex planning procedures - this need is shared by almost all the regions;
- To promote the cooperation between public administrations and authorities so as to simplify the tasks associated with the
- To promote an integrated approach to regional development including infrastructural interventions and soft measures;
- To stimulate a culture focusing on quality among the operators and improve their capacity to respond to the need for significant financial resources for the implementation of some of the Good Practices.
3. CROSS ANALYSIS BY TOPIC
The cross analysis, which compares the 244 Good Practices from the 15 projects, draws on the assessment carried out, summarised in Section 3.1 and compiled in the project assessment files (Annexe 3).
This cross analysis is based on groups of Good Practices clustered into nine Topics.
- land use and transport planning;
- regional transport authorities;
- financing public transport
- encouraging the use of public and shared transport;
- mobility management;
- ITS – intelligent transport systems;
- accessible transport;
- encouraging low emission transport;
- sustainable transport awareness campaigns.
The cross analysis also includes the assessment carried out with respect to:
- exploring common features/ challenges/ difficulties/ successes among the projects of the same Topic;
- detecting similarities among Good Practices;
- identifying if partner regions have found different solutions to the same issues;
- identifying the regions that have particularly interesting or innovative results, practices, or policies and identifying those which merit being made available to other local/regional authorities dealing with the same Topic or to other regions in Europe.
Projects with guidebooks and transfer manuals - specific to Good Practices or with a broader reach – were identified and compared with regard to the quality of outputs.
- TOPIC 1 – LAND USE AND TRANSPORT PLANNING
There are nine Good Practices on the subject of developing land use and transport planning covered by three projects (CATCH_MR, CAPRICE, MMOVE).• Among the projects, the most highlighted experiences are related to the integration of different functions (planning, land use, transport and mobility) on an institutional or cooperation level, modal integration, and urban requalification models. This integration is achieved by merging functions from conventional urban planning with transport and territory planning. This approach can either assume more formal governance (e.g. Joint regional Planning – Berlin/Brandenburg – CATCH_MR project) or take place under a more informal and participative governance between the stakeholders (Gothenburg region – CATCH_MR). This analysis demonstrates how different cities/regions, although working on similar issues, can conceive different solutions and methods.
• Another highlighted issue is related to modal integration planning. On this point, the projects CAPRICE and MMOVE place special emphasis on integrating public transport, private car, and soft modes of transport (walking and cycling). The CAPRICE project includes Good Practices related to the Urban Mobility Plan in the Paris Ile-de-France region. This is an integrated plan for public and private modes of transport, as well as for passengers and goods. Again, the instruments and scope of this group of issues differ in nature.
• The third issue is related to urban requalification models. Here the MMOVE project pays special attention to the requalification of city centres through the reorganisation of the urban space and the introduction of sustainable transports modes. These activities are based on centrality and theoretical concepts relate to place-making.
The integration of land-use planning with transport is a crucial issue for the sustainable development of cities, but, at the same time, it is one of the most difficult to achieve. Moreover, everyone recognises the importance of applying an integrated approach to these Topics. However, things often go in a different direction: urban planning is determined by specific factors and frequently neglects or underestimates transport needs, leading to increased mobility costs and irrationalities. Many constraints owing to the historic development of cities, organisational problems, cultural approaches, and specific interests also significantly limit the possibility for action and make it very difficult to achieve effective integration. Often the attempts made to this end are destined to remain mainly theoretical and academic exercises.
The fact that this point is crucial to improving the quality of the transport system means that it requires a very pragmatic approach. Sustainable Urban Mobility and Transport Plans (SUMTPs) have been a relatively recent theoretical achievement in trying to embed the concept of sustainability in the development of Urban Mobility Plans (as traditionally conceived). This tool can represent, (for the moment mainly for large cities,) an important tool for advancing on the way to integrated urban and mobility planning. It adopts a very practical approach, starting from the existing situation and has real practical value (as the plans have to be adopted as programming documents by the City Council). European Programmes, such as CIVITAS, focus on SUMTPs. Methodological research has been carried out to define the criteria for developing a SUMTP. It is our conviction that, if any potential Topic in this area deserves attention for capitalisation, it is the SUMTP. Even if an ‘natural approach’ has not been carried out by the projects, the different experiences that have been developed can be collected into a theoretical framework, driven by the SUMTP concept, thereby contributing to the development of this concept and practice at the European level. In this sense, some of the ongoing projects could be addressed to develop their activities placing them in this reference framework.
In this respect, it is important to note that the project INVOLVE included Good Practices demonstrating the involvement of the private sector in urban planning, as is the case with the Prague and the UK experiences. This concern of ‘adding land value for transport schemes’ can serve as an example of transport planning combined with land occupation, in which the involvement of the private building sector along with the entities responsible for the transport sector ensures the viability of the new projects and the mobility of the residents. The project RITS-NET includes a Good Practice that describes an integrated software environment for a multi-modal public transit simulation based on the principles of geo-simulation, which could constitute a technological reference.
- TOPIC 2 – REGIONAL TRANSPORT AUTHORITIES
There are 10 Good Practices on the subject of regional transport authorities, in three of the six projects (CAPRICE, PIMMS-CAPITAL and CATCH_MR). Under this theme, the projects aim to strengthen the links between local/regional entities and other stakeholders, in order to promote the effectiveness of the authorities as well as to expand their competences in the field of transport.• Regarding the aim to enhance the effectiveness of the authorities, the Good Practices analysed were essentially related to contracting issues. Generally, authorities with similar structures focus on additional specific functions or tasks could create synergies by combining contracting schemes. PIMMS CAPITAL has one Good Practice that focuses on an integrated strategy for transport authorities (West Midlands County Region, UK), which modifies the conventional organisation of transport authorities by involving private/public actors and includes environmental and economic considerations in the tender decision-making process.
• In relation to expanding the competences of transport authorities, some Good Practices possess features that go beyond the traditional concepts. In CATCH_MR, the Good Practice ‘From sectorial planning to integrated mobility management/Budapest’, proposed parking and road management as internal competences of the transport authority.
Four projects presented interesting Good Practices that can serve as references in the field of transport authorities. The first is EPTA, which is fully devoted to the Topic of Public Transport Authorities (PTA) and which aims at identifying, through the analysis of the different Good Practices, a general PTA model that is transferable and adaptable, and that can be adopted for the successful implementation or reorganisation of a PTA. EPTA has identified 35 Good Practices, all related to this specific thematic area, which cover all the functions that can be performed by a PTA, namely Regulate, Plan, Tender/Award, Integrate, Promote, Manage, and Control. They point out different approaches to the same problem carried out in different environments. In this case, the fact that the Good Practices have not been sought only within the limits of the Project partnership, but rather have been selected among the Good Practices collected at European level is noteworthy. For this reason, they represent a good sample of the state-of-the-art in the sector, since both Guidebooks and case studies, such as SRM - the Agency for Mobility and Local Public regional Transport Partnerships (RTP) in Scotland and National Transport Authority (Ireland) are already available.
INVOLVE presents a Good Practice that highlights the cooperation between the transport authority and traffic control centres, focused on promoting the use of public transport. The RITS NET project, a well-integrated regional practice in managing intelligent urban mobility, is an innovative approach for promoting traffic management benefits and mobility management with automation processes implemented by a modern Control Traffic Centre. A Good Practice from the MOG project highlights the cooperation between two municipalities acting at the regional level, designing a sustainable mobility policy together with the transport authorities. The POLITE project describes an example of a Good Practice (Annexe 4 – Exemplary Good Practices) that includes a fully integrated info-mobility of the transport services.
- TOPIC 3 – FINANCING PUBLIC TRANSPORT
There are three Good Practices on the subject of the financing of public transport, identified by two of the six projects addressed, and they propose three very different concepts.• The French public transport tax has been in force since the 1970’s and it has been intensely researched. This Good Practice has an excellent impact for financing public transport; however, it is well-known that there are several barriers to the transfer of this concept, the main one being lack of political will and commitment.
• Another example is the toll ring in Oslo. This very efficient concept has some limitations of transferability: only four metropolitan cities in Europe (plus Singapore a long time ago) have succeeded in setting up an urban road charging system. A large debate is still ongoing about the real effectiveness of this technique for urban centres and about the right way to implement toll ring systems. A substantial amount of literature has been produced on this Topic and different schemes have been applied and developed. The theme is directly related to the theoretical Topic of the internalisation of external costs.
• The third good practice is related to the organising and setting of a local transport authority, which is a standard practice in transport, namely in metropolitan areas.
The INVOLVE project presents Good Practices for financing public transport, either through co-financing the construction of metro or train stations, or through sponsoring the names of Metro stations. Two other Good Practices that are good examples of public/private partnerships, are the Klaipeda experience - long-term contract and cooperation between public authority and private companies, - and the Roermond case – public/private partnership in mobility management.
- TOPIC 4 – ENCOURAGING THE USE OF PUBLIC AND SHARED TRANSPORT
There are 19 Good Practices that aim at encouraging the use of public and shared transport. They propose different concepts. Several of them are related to conventional transport engineering and planning issues (e.g. extension of tram lines, bus corridors, etc). Other Good Practices are more relevant, such as those that focus on intermodal nodes, soft modes, trip planners and car sharing concepts, transferral of which would be interesting.• In relation to intermodal nodes, it was observed that two Good Practices exploit this concept in an excellent way and both produced guidebooks. For this reason, it would be interesting if the two related projects (CATCH_MR and PIMMS TRANSFER) could create synergies, in order to upscale the work and disseminate it to a broader stakeholder group. Since the projects are concluded, the transferral efforts (e.g., comparing and translating the guidebooks) would require a further effort and commitment by the partners or other entities.
• Concerning soft modes, there are Good Practices that might be interesting to take up. They are mainly related to cycling and walking, though the latter is barely dealt with. For instance, the good practice explored by Budapest (CATCH_MR) is related to the creation of new routes and bicycle lanes on main roads. These Good Practices are easily transferable, except for the identified financial barriers (and as long as international mainstream practices are taken into consideration).
• The third group of Good Practices is related to the promotion of trip planners. These trip planners aim to promote modal integration. Recently they have also come to include private car and pedestrians, so as to increase the choices of accessibility. One relevant good practice is related to the door-to-door designed intermodal and integrated trip planners, set up by ZTM (Warsaw) and VBB (Berlin), and proposed by CAPRICE. This cooperation between these entities not only allows for the implementation of a door-to-door, integrated, cross-border planner, but will ensure the continuity of the cooperation. The two regions aim to introduce an integrated ticketing system together.
• Car sharing represents another interesting set of Good Practices. The example tackled in this Topic is related to the car sharing initiative in Ulm (car2go). This initiative is based on the concept of ‘free flow’ car sharing (for both conventional and electric vehicles).
The INVOLVE project presents a very different set of Good Practices with the primary objective of encouraging the use of public transport. A large number of the Good Practices focus on buses as a mode of transport that, due to their versatility, could be a driver to promoting the use of public transport without high costs. POLITE presents a group of Good Practices concerning an integrated pricing system designed to promote the use of different modes of transport as well as a complete and friendly transport information planner that includes all modes of transport. An integrated multimodal public transport system needs to include information, tariffs, ticketing, and bus travel management. As its main objective, the MOG project presents some proposals for transport organisation in areas of low demand, such as a common transport solution through a ‘car pooling’ formula or a shared transport solution for disabled individuals. Another interesting Good Practice is the promotion of intermodality between public transports and a network of bike rental stations at public transport interfaces. The Good Practice ‘Pioneering Italian flexible transport service (StradiBus in the Province of Cremona)’ presented in the EPTA project, looks at adopting of flexible services in rural areas and has also been dealt with by other finished or ongoing Projects, namely FlIPPER.
- TOPIC 5 – MOBILITY MANAGEMENT
There are 20 Good Practices on the subject of mobility management.
There are several Good Practices related to conventional transport engineering and planning solutions (e.g. bollards implementation, blue zone parking control schemes).There are also Good Practices associated with issues such as a participative approach to mobility management, demand responsive systems in low-demand areas, and soft mobility management measures which are less conventional, more innovative and interesting for other potential users.• Regarding the participative approach to mobility management, there is a Good Practice (ResSmart) in Stockholm (PIMMS CAPITAL) that aims to ensure the long-lasting and the availability of resources for Mobility Management in the region and to find a long-lasting organisation for regional cooperation/coordination; it proposes the setting up of a regional platform for the transport system with the cooperation of several stakeholders who signed a specific agreement for this purpose. This Good Practice was transferred three times during the project.
• The introduction of demand responsive systems is another subject that is important for sustainable transport. This concept applied to low-demand situations (rural areas, off-peak hours and weekends in cities) would be very interesting to transfer to other regions, since it is important for improving issues like inclusion and cohesion between different territories (FLIPPER). Another good practice explored low technology for demand responsive systems.
• Under the soft mobility management Good Practices, an example was presented by MMOVE: ‘walk-bus to school’. This example is related to security, awareness, and modal split issues and was aimed at children and their parents, with a view to changing their behaviour. This Good Practice is considered easily transferable, but will only be successful if there is a high level of commitment between all the stakeholders.
In the INVOLVE project, the great majority of Good Practices focus on private sector involvement and mobility management. Thus, it is possible to highlight some good practice examples in this area that could be transferable with the right adaptation to the regional target context. Within these Good Practices, we should underline those related to the involvement of private enterprises along with the authorities in charge of mobility management, with the objective to reduce the use of cars and promote sustainable forms of transport. These Good Practices demonstrate involvement not only of the private enterprises, but also of the transport operators and entities in charge of mobility management at the various levels of intervention.
In the POLITE project, one specific Good Practice deserves mentioning. It provides the connection between different modes of transport in suburban areas and ensures access to transport information to visitors and city residents. Other Good Practices in this project are related to intermodal info-mobility, particularly where some companies have engaged private companies, such as taxis or minivan hire, for the transport of their employees, while others offer a personal budget to purchase monthly tickets to encourage the use of shared bicycle schemes to travel to work.
In the MOG project, we can report an innovative solution of combining passenger and public goods transport into an integrated logistics solution, offering multi-services at the same location; another remarkable Good Practice is the promoting of public transport so as to prevent car accidents at night, particularly after festivities. These Good Practices are relevant for the Topic addressed, but we must underline that the different experiments of this kind have not been successful in other environments, so promotion must be carried out carefully.
- TOPIC 6 – ITS – INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS
There are 9 Good Practices that involve ITS. They propose different approaches to several different areas, such as integrated ticketing, computer aided central traffic monitoring systems, the video surveillance of city buses, and software for on-demand services.
Almost all of the presented Good Practices are technologically based, but not necessarily innovative. Some of them are standard applications available on the market and need little adaptation to be transferred. The main barriers are related to the financial aspects and political commitment. Some ITS solutions for demand responsive systems are interesting (substitution of buses by taxis – Formentera/SP and Borgo Panigale/IT).
Different ongoing projects focus on the ITS Topic. Based on the available information, all of the Good Practices of the POSSE project are included in this Topic. The POSSE project seeks to encourage the use of ITS in sustainable urban policies, by transferring a good practice used in UK and Germany to follower cities elsewhere in Europe, and by supporting the development of appropriate European wide open specifications and standards. The UK’s UTMC specifications, based on open international standards, are the main basis for the identified Good Practices in the different national departments – e.g., UK Department for Transport (DfT), the Highways Agency (HA), the UTMC Development Group (UDG), and Cambridgeshire County Council or the Coventry City Council.
In the INVOLVE project, a Good Practice focuses on the use of ITS in mobility management by providing information on parking using smart phones.
About this last type of applications, we should mention two Good Practices using ‘floating car data’ techniques for monitoring the state of traffic in real-time. This is quite innovative and could lead to significant results (see ‘Using vehicle Good Practices data to monitor traffic flow in Riga’ from RITS-NET and ‘Torino BP’ from POLITE). Another interesting application is the ‘SmartSantander’ Good Practice (from POLITE) for its complete and integrated set of information made available to users.
- TOPIC 7 – ACCESSIBLE TRANSPORT
There are six Good Practices related to accessibility in transport, each with different applications.
This Topic is mostly related to Good Practices aimed at creating suitable conditions for the use of public transport by physically disabled/visually impaired individuals. This is an often neglected Topic that ought to be more stressed to reduce social disparities among regions. Two approaches are being used to develop the accessibility in the transport systems.• The Good Practices from Paris Île-de-France and Berlin/Brandenburg (both from CAPRICE) take a step-by-step approach to fostering accessibility in the transport network.
• Another approach is more ambitious, providing an integrated vision to increase accessibility (with the construction of new facilities, pavements, public transport stops). This good practice in Graz was presented in the PIMMS TRANSFER project.
Some different examples of Good Practice in this field are presented in projects such as the:
INVOLVE project – which promotes door-to-door accessible transport for disabled people, and
MOG project which promotes accessibility in several different ways in rural areas: an access to mail service where there are no post offices; a range of eco-mobility services, like train-bike initiatives between urban and rural areas; cheaper mobility for poorer people, with a view satisfying their transport needs in association with different public-private partners; transport on-demand in specific areas where there is low weak demand. Moreover, this is achieved using high value-added transport services that may be able to meet public transport needs by combining them with the demands of residents without access to a car.
- TOPIC 8 – ENCOURAGING LOW EMISSION TRANSPORTS
There are 6 Good Practices related to low-emission means of transport.
The Good Practices are mostly related to new technological trends in vehicles (Hydrogen, Electric traction systems for rail). In this context, there is a relevant Good Practice related to Reggio Emilia’s experience with electric vehicles. This is one of the oldest and most important experiences with E-mobility and considered by many as a ‘lighthouse or exemplary project’ at the European level.
In the SUM project, the most interesting Good Practices are related to the setting up of charging grids and a cross-border corridor. A good practice included in the MOG project is the use of new electric cars for tourism purposes, supported by a charging infrastructure, which ensures the autonomy of vehicles and promotes eco-mobility for leisure purposes. The Good Practices presented in the INVOLVE project that aim at encouraging low emission transports include: cycling through a network plan (BICIPLAN) and the use of bicycles for going to school (BIKETRAIN); road sign installation aimed at pedestrian traffic; and promotion of public transport through the construction of bus terminals by shopping centre developers.
- TOPIC 9 – SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AWARENESS CAMPAIGNS
There are 12 Good Practices that focus on awareness campaigns.
All the Good Practices presented are considered as soft measures and aim to improve knowledge and awareness about sustainable transport.
One good practice that could be highlighted is the Local Travel Network Plan in Cambridgeshire. This good practice consists of a package of measures and initiatives aimed at promoting greener, cleaner travel choices and reducing reliance on the car. The measures allows the passenger to choose the most sustainable mode (like walking, cycling, car sharing, and public transport).
Although some of the Good Practices aimed at promoting the use of public transport are not particularly innovative, they are easily transferable since they mainly consist of schemes that can be applied to promotion and awareness raising initiatives.
A more complex, yet more interesting scheme is suggested by the Involve Project - ‘Company TravelWise - West Midlands’ - which includes active support for companies applying a Mobility Management scheme.
Other more traditional initiatives are: Walking to school - targeted campaigns intended to raise children’s awareness of public transport - Cultural initiatives on-board and at bus stops - Weekends promoting public transport - a travel Plan in which members’ benefit from a range of sustainable travel initiatives and support.
POLITE develops a set of interventions aimed at the use of suburban buses, namely focusing on equipment and the marking of bus stops.
A specific Good Practice called ‘Mobility solutions and sustainable transport in the Vidzeme region (Latvia)’ is proposed by MOG and has also been included among the Good Practices identified by the project RITS-NET. The MOG Project also suggests different actions of this kind, aimed at modifying drivers’ behaviour by promoting efficient energy driving courses for different kinds of users (train, taxi, car drivers) or at promoting tourism using environmentally friendly modes of transport (eco-mobility by attracting tourists to a Green Weekend with discounts) or offering alternative mobility to young people in rural areas, especially at night time and sustainable mobility between mountain/rural areas and urban areas.
4. THEMATIC ANALYSIS
- 4.1 COMMON CHALLENGES AND SUCCESSES
All the projects share a common general objective, which is to improve the state of mobility in the Regions in favour of a more sustainable transport model. This can, of course, mean several things, but can be summarised in some main points, which can be considered as the common challenges for the projects:
Challenge 1: to achieve a higher and more sustainable use of public transport for general mobility, principally by:
• ensuring a better quality of public transport, not only in the urban areas but also in low-density areas, such as peripheral and rural areas;
• achieving a lower and more rational use of private cars and promoting intermodality between private cars/public transport, especially in dense urban areas;
• promoting the widespread use of alternative and less impacting modes of transport, such as cycling, walking, car and bike sharing, car-pooling, etc.;
• fostering a new attitude among the population towards the mobility models, allowing these new opportunities to be better exploited.
All these combined targets should result in a higher modal split for public transport, ‘soft modes’ as well as a reduction in emissions levels.
Challenge 2: Enhance the planning capacity of Regions and the Local Administration in general in the field of mobility. This challenge has some main aspects common to multiple projects, namely the need;
• to ‘embed’ the concept of sustainability among the main targets groups concerned by the various mobility plans developed by Local Administrations;
• to integrate the concept of land use and mobility (both in infrastructure and management) within urban planning activities. This means a radical change to traditional methodology and models;
• to integrate the planning actions of different administrative bodies into a shared perspective. This is an increasingly important point as mobility is a wide-area phenomenon that needs integrated solutions across geographical and administrative borders;
• to unlock all the potential of the various modes of transport available, integrating them in a unitary perspective within mobility plans. This means not only intermodality, but also the capacity to offer different modes of transport within an integrated network to people and to satisfy their mobility needs in a rational way, both from a collective and from an individual perspective.
This stronger capacity will progressively lead to an improvement in the quality of urban areas and major conurbations (in a wide-area perspective).
Of course, these major challenges can be tackled using a wide range of approaches and tools. This becomes quite evident when we look at the wide diversity of the selected Good Practices and the specific themes addressed by the projects. Despite this large variety, it is possible to find many similarities within the approaches and specific themes. The clustering of the Good Practices shows how they are concentrated on thematic areas: about a third of the Good Practices (of the concluded projects) are related to public transport planning and use. Another third deal with Mobility Management and awareness raising campaigns. The last third are about land use and transport planning.
The main difficulties involved in transferring specific policies/Good Practices are often a result of the different local conditions and constraints. The objects of transfer are not always policies and methodologies, but can also be specific applications, which are often based on market products or systems. While in the first instance, the transferability is mainly linked to political commitment and the ability to adapt the schemes to the local context, the second requires a real feasibility analysis, specific design work, and adequate financial resources.
We must also consider that the improvement of transport policies often (although not always) requires significant investment; this is often cited as another difficulty, especially for real-scale applications. Another common challenge faced is to ensure the adequate political commitment so as to be able manage all the above mentioned difficulties. In this respect, we must say that one of the main drivers in achieving consensus and commitment is being able to provide real proof of the effectiveness of a certain policy or action, and this goal is largely pursued by all the projects. A very important aspect is the ability to give an idea of the cost-related benefits and of the complexity of the policy or action. This aspect is generally under-valued in the projects, probably due to the difficulty in measuring the real effects of many of the policies / actions analysed. Nevertheless, the ability to provide information about the cost-related benefits and project complexity should be addressed and seen as a powerful tool for encouraging stakeholder involvement and in awareness raising.
With regard to the success of the projects, many of them have been successful in transferring policies or practices that have improved the state of mobility in Regions (as reported above), but they are quite diversified depending on the Topics tackled.
We can note the general successes common to the majority of the Projects:
• A significant increase in the level of professional skills of all those who participated in the Projects thanks to the acquisition of specific knowledge and through networking with other professionals and politicians;
• An opportunity to extend and qualify the debate about policies and strategic issues in the Regions;
• Heightened awareness of the possible solutions to regional and local problems.
These represent the strongest points of the INTERREG IVC Programme and its main objectives; We can conclude therefore that many projects aim to and are achieving these objectives.
- 4.2 TRANSFERABILITY OF GOOD PRACTICES
European regions do not need to reinvent the wheel! Among the 15 projects analysed, there are several Good Practices related to Sustainable Transport that bear similarities in their approach or solutions. These common Good Practices are mostly designed to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the transport system. The Good Practices that were identified mainly focus on providing ‘intelligence’ (i.e. travel planners etc.), raising ‘awareness’, promoting ‘intermodal fare integration’, and ‘new services’ aimed at changing the current transport system paradigm.
Interestingly, the nine thematic areas have quite a large number of similar Good Practices. The similarity lies in the particular problem addressed and/or the technique used to tackle the identified problems. Of course, this does not mean that the solutions found are identical, as local conditions and constraints can affect them, but the approaches are similar and can be compared. Moreover, the different regions can, of course, obtain ideas from the analysis of similar Good Practices.
Despite the fact that the ongoing projects are still carrying out the good practice selection process, it is possible to give an overview of the Good Practices that present common traits.
TOPIC 1 – LAND USE AND TRANSPORT PLANNING
Mobility plans themes are broadly present in several projects:
• MMOVE (‘EPPUR SI MUOVE’ – Marche),
• PIMMS TRANSFER (Effizient Mobil - Mobility Management in industrial Sites HESSEN),
• PIMMS CAPITAL (Regional Platform for Mobility Management in Stockholm),
• INVOLVE (Public Transport in industrial areas – Alcobendas - Madrid, Dedicated home-to-school and home-to-work PT services – Livorno, Transport Plans for enterprises in new urban development – Madrid, Mobility plans for organisations and institutions - Maribor, Slovenia, Smarter Travel Work Places – Dublin - Ireland),
• POLITE (Mobility and traffic management in firms - Province of Ferrara – Italy).
TOPIC 2 AND 3 – REGIONAL TRANSPORT AUTHORITIES - FINANCING PUBLIC TRANSPORT
An area in which many similarities are recorded is on PTA and Public Transport Financing and Promoting. The CAPRICE project has addressed this Topic through some Good Practices, such as:
• ‘Integrated public transport systems of Berlin and Paris’,
• ‘STIF contracting system for improving the quality of service for passengers’,
• ‘the French public transport tax’,
• ‘the tendering system in Germany and Poland’
• and the same has been done by other analysed projects, such as CATCH_MR with the Good Practice
• ‘Creating an efficient system for financing public transport in Brandenburg - Germany’
In particular, EPTA specifically focuses on these aspects and includes many similar Good Practices that cover all the aspects of a PTA. Therefore, several Good Practices related to planning, tendering, and financing are quite similar. The INVOLVE project also includes different Good Practices targeted at the financing of public transport, sometimes even using non-conventional solutions (‘Sponsorship of metro stations by private companies’ in Madrid (Spain).
TOPIC 4 – ENCOURAGING THE USE OF PUBLIC AND SHARED TRANSPORT
Intermodality and Park&Ride are two areas addressed by several projects. Some of the relevant Good Practices are from CATCH_MR:
• ‘Facilitating access to public transport – Flexible approach to P+R strategies in Budapest’,
• ‘The ideal intermodal node – Guidebook on intermodality in the Gothenburg region’,
and from PIMMS CAPITAL
• ‘Design and management of interchanges in London’.
The ECOTALE project addresses the practice of Park&Ride, as well as the POLITE project with
• ‘Interchange Principe Pio’, in Madrid,
and the INVOLVE project with
• ‘Park & Ride car parks in shopping centres – Warsaw (Poland)’.
TOPIC 5 – MOBILITY MANAGEMENT
Mobility Management solutions are a diversified set of techniques for changing people’s driving routine and reducing the use of private cars in favour of ‘soft’ or public modes. Among the various types of Good Practices shared by the different projects, the following are worth highlighting:
MMOVE presents a wide variety of Good Practices focused on cycling (cycle tracks, cycling to school or work, bike sharing) such as
• ‘Creation of a cycle tracks net – Senigallia’,
• ‘Walk & cycle to school – Valberg – Sweden’;
• ‘BiciBus- Marche (Italy)’;
• ‘Cycling for health– Valberg (Sweden)’.
In PIMMS TRANSFER there are also Good Practices addressing cycling, in particular the
• ‘Treviso (Italy)Bike sharing scheme’,
as well as in CATCH_MR with
• ‘Supporting the soft modes as alternatives to car use – Bicycle developments in Budapest’.
The same for the INVOLVE project with
• ‘Cycling network plan (BICIPLAN) - Reggio Emilia’,
• ‘Bicibus: going to school together by bicycle (BIKETRAIN) - Reggio Emilia’
and for MOG with
• ‘Electro-bike system implantation – Vyzdeme’,
• ‘Nextbike’- bike sharing system in rural Austria – Burgenland’
which are Good Practices with similarities, especially focused on cycling.
Walking (pedibus, pedestrian areas) is also considered by MMOVE:
• ‘Walk & cycle to school – Valberg – Sweden’;
• ‘Pedibus - Macerata Marche’.
PIMMS CAPITAL with
• ‘Walking bus to school in Berlin’
and INVOLVE with
• ‘Mendrisio abreast of the times – Promotion of pedestrian mobility – Mendrisio Switzerland’;
• ‘We walk to school – Frankfurt’,
which all consider walking as well.
Flexible Transport Systems are another theme where similar Good Practices have been found between the projects:
• FLIPPER, where all the Good Practices are particularly focused on this Topic, and other projects, such as MMOVE with ‘Flexible Modes of transport – Ulm (Germany)’,
• MOG ‘ DRT for different rural areas and different techniques’, and
• INVOLVE ‘Legal framework for flexible transport systems – Livorno (Italy)’.
TOPIC 6 – ITS – INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS
Many Good Practices aim to incorporate ‘intelligence’ into the transport system; this is the area of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). These Good Practices provide a pathway to promoting more flexible, convenient, and integrated travel options.
Examples of such ITS Use include Good Practices related to travel information tools, like
• the web-based travel planner promoted by the Berlin and Warsaw public transport operators (MMOVE)
• the local travel plan network (PIMMS TRANSFER).
The same Topic is addressed in some ongoing projects, namely POLITE, which is specifically focused on ITS applications; Such Good Practices include
• the ‘National multimodal journey planner IDOS’ in the Czech Republic,
• the ‘Intermodal Info-mobility platform’ from the Province of Ferrara (Italy),
• the ‘Traveller Information system’ from Reading Borough Council (UK),
• the ‘Multimodal Real-Time Traffic and Travel Information’ in different partner Regions.
Project INVOLVE also focuses on ITS with the good practice
• ‘Birmingham City Centre Interchange and Birmingham Interconnect – an integrated public transport information and way-finding system for Birmingham City Centre’.
The area of ticketing has various homogenous Good Practices:
• PIMMS CAPITAL with ‘Integrated fares: technological investments on automatic ticketing’ in Treviso,
• CAPRICE with ‘Contactless electronic ticketing in Warsaw’,
• RITS-NET with the ‘ITS for Traffic Management and Mobility’ in the Marche Region (Italy),
• POLITE with the ‘Atlas Public Transport Ticketing System’ in Riga (Latvia).
Among the various ITS applications, one should be mentioned in particular, since it is quite important as a promising traffic monitoring application: the floating car data technique. Pilot applications are mentioned as Good Practices in two projects.
• RITS-NET ‘Using vehicle Good Practices data to monitor traffic flow’ in Riga (Latvia)
• POLITE good practice in Torino (Italy).
The two experiences are related to the same problem and the solutions involved improving the effectiveness of traffic management in cities.
Traffic management systems are mainly addressed by Good Practices in CAPRICE, RITS-NET, PIMMS CAPITAL, and POLITE. In CAPRICE, the good practice
• ‘Traffic management and sustainable mobility in all cities of CAPRICE is presented.
RITS-NET places a special focus on this area mainly addressed in the Good Practices
• ‘ITS for Traffic Management and Mobility - Region and the City of Pécs (Hungary)’,
• ‘Traffic Management and Mobility Presentation, Development Centre Litija, Latvia)’,
• ‘Traffic management and mobility in Pleven region (Bulgaria)’ and
• ‘Traffic management - South Dublin County Council (Ireland)’.
Also, in PIMMS CAPITAL, there was a good practice related to
• ‘Computer Aided Central Traffic Monitoring System - Limerick City, Ireland’
that focused on this area. The POLITE project also includes one good practice related to
• ‘Traffic Management in the Province of Ferrara – Italy’.
TOPIC 9 – SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AWARENESS CAMPAIGNS
Promotional and branding initiatives for supporting various kinds of mobility management actions or sustainable mobility in general are another trait shared among the different projects. Examples of similar Good Practices can be found
• in the CAPRICE good practice ‘Changing mobility habits in Vilnius’
• in MMOVE, with several Good Practices of a different kind based on awareness raising and promotional events,
• in the INVOLVE good practice ‘Use of transport nodes for cultural and social events – Madrid (Spain)’
• in the POLITE good practice ‘Muoversi - Calabrian regional Administration (Italy)’ also oriented around promotional and branding initiatives.
This long list of similarities shows that the ‘tool box’ that policymakers and traffic engineers can use to work on mobility problems has been relatively well defined. The commonalities are generally related to the same consolidated set of techniques but in different mixes and with different levels of tailoring for local application.
This significant number of similarities among the various Good Practices in the different Regions emphasises the importance of the potential benefit of an efficient capitalisation mechanism, capable of making this amount of knowledge easily accessible to European Regions. It should be noted that similarity does not automatically imply transferability and that, in any case, careful context-dependent feasibility and design work has to be performed in order to promote sustainable transport in the European regions.
- 4.3 SOLUTIONS FOR THE SAME ISSUE
The 15 Projects dealt with a large number of diversified Topics, ranging from very general Topics, such as taxation models or integrated planning between land use and transport, to very specific ones, such as transport services, awareness campaigns, mobility management actions, and so on.
This means that, even if the approach to the various problems has been different, we can identify two main cases:
• the issues that can be directly influenced through regional legislation or by the institutional structure in the Regions, which can be considered as ‘general policies’ transferable to other Regions; in this first category we can note the large number of Topics related to wide-area planning, transport authorities, public transport tendering, and financing;
• the issues that are more likely to require technical solutions for specific services or applications, such as Intelligent Transport Systems, flexible mobility services, mobility management initiatives, and so on. They are more closely relate to the category of ‘pilot project’.
For the first case, the different Regions often found different solutions to similar problems, as the constraints and conditions in which they operate affect the solutions to be adopted. Typical examples include the different Good Practices aimed at promoting the integration of transport policies with land planning or the participative approach to transport planning: the Projects have identified interesting Good Practices using different approaches to these common and well-known issues. Some of the Practices focus on integrating institutional structures; others rely on the involvement of different actors through participative structures and initiatives. The same can be said for the Topics on how to best organise PTA and related problems (financing, tendering, etc.) We can say that there are mainly ‘broad types of solutions’ some of which have been studied and defined in theory, and that the Regions use these practices as a basis by adapting them to the local contexts.
In the second case, the similarities between the selected solutions are more numerous, especially for Good Practices related to pilot projects and applications. In fact, as already mentioned, a large number of the Good Practices that have been selected and transferred concern transport services, technological solutions, and general applications. They often make use of existing and assessed products or techniques. Of course they, always require a design phase to be adapted to the local realities. The ability to do this can vary, in the case of some mobility management schemes, for example, you can find the same pattern adopted in different Regions, while for more complex Topics, such as the application of Flexible Transport Systems or Park & Ride schemes, the adopted solutions are more diversified, even if they are based on the same criteria, concepts, and design methodologies.
- 4.4 PARTICULARILY INTERESTING OR INNOVATIVE PRACTICES
The Good Practices that have been identified in the capitalisation exercise as especially successful or innovative and that could be showcased for other regions are:
• Paris Ile-de-France: The French public transport tax and Paris Ile-de-France’s: Step-by-step to full accessibility are two practices that were developed and implemented and are examples of ways of financing the transport system and improving access through dialogue with partners and setting investment priorities (CAPRICE);
• Berlin- Brandenburg region: The travel planner system for the Warsaw metropolitan region based on the exchange of experiences on Berlin’s VBB travel planner with ZTM Warsaw (door-to-door travel planner is a good example of the intermodal integration in regions, realised by a user-friendly technology) (CAPRICE);
• Berlin- Brandenburg region: The VBB is currently extending its travel planner to include a tool for passengers with reduced mobility. This very simple but effective system was set up to assist mobility-impaired passengers in boarding the trains. All metro and S-Bahn stations are equipped with ramps to help persons in wheelchairs to board the train (CATCH_MR);
• Gothenburg region: The Gothenburg Region Association of Local Authorities (GR) is a cooperative organisation uniting thirteen municipalities in Western Sweden and is an organisation for shaping political consensus and cooperation that demonstrates a participative approach to planning/organisational aspects, which is distinctive from the normal approach;
• The Guidebook on intermodality is another practice in this region that describes how an intermodal node/interchange can be designed taking account of all relevant aspects. It highlights the importance of developing a common language and understanding that all the different disciplines (e.g. traffic engineering, urban design) may be related. It provides a design idea that brings the most important factor into the spotlight - the individuals who will use the intermodal node (CATCH_MR);
• Stockholm, Sweden: In the regional Transport, Mobility Management and Spatial Planning all the authorities in the region responsible for transport, traffic and/or, land-use planning are involved in the integrated planning process (PIMMS CAPITAL);
• West Midlands County Region, United Kingdom: It focuses on public engagement and consultation including the involvement of minority groups and disability groups, establishing governance arrangements with partnering authorities, developing integrated transport strategies in close collaboration with businesses and private sector partners, establishing strong links between transport and the economic and spatial strategies for the region (PIMMS CAPITAL);
• Worcester, United Kingdom: Worcestershire County Council has sought to significantly enhance the efficiency of its transport network, capitalising on the development of sustainable infrastructure, improving transport services and delivering intuitive smarter choice measures (PIMMS CAPITAL);
• Treviso, Italy: The Province of Treviso’s road safety project, called ‘Prevention of road accidents and dissemination of the culture of safety’, aims to raise young people’s awareness of road safety, improve their driving skills and reduce road accidents (PIMMS CAPITAL);
• Cambridge, United Kingdom: The Better Bankside Travel Plan is a complete package of measures and initiatives t aims to reduce the need to travel and encourages all those working in, living in, and visiting Bankside, to select the most sustainable mode of transport for their journey to, from, and within the Bankside area. The measures introduced in this Travel Plan, focusing on bicycle travel, propose other modes of transport offering the user a series of benefits that contribute to reducing car traffic ( PIMMS TRANSFER);
• Reggio’s Electrical Experience: The initiative consists in offering the possibility to hire electric vehicles (without a driver). The service guarantees the efficiency of the vehicle and aims at overcoming preconceptions surrounding electrical vehicles (high purchasing costs, - after sales service costs). The target population consists of Public bodies and companies, private companies and, ultimately, citizens (MMOVE);
• Brighton & Hove: JourneyOn Travel Awareness/Marketing Campaign promotes sustainable transport and health messages in Brighton & Hove. It was launched to support the introduction of a personal travel planning programme designed to influence travel behaviour among a target population group (MMOVE);
• Ulm: Car to Go – Car Sharing This is a new car sharing project based on scientific research offering a new way of managing car sharing. It is run by Daimler, which has a research institute (MMOVE);
• Mölndal: Health commuters. The idea of the Health commuter campaign is to encourage car drivers to test cycling to work instead of driving and focuses directly on changing travel behaviour, It has been rather successful so far (MMOVE);
• Flexible Transport System: the FLIPPER project presents a set of interesting and innovative practices:
º DRT routing in high density areas;
º Services models for DRT in rural areas (low technology services);
º Use of Volunteers to manage DRT;
º Sharing call centre services for flexible transport / call;
º Use of DRT for disabled ‘users’.
- 4.5 INTERESTING OR INNOVATIVE RESULTS
Altogether, the Projects have analysed more than 300 Good Practices, and a large number of transfers have already occurred. Several of these transfers have been successful and contributed to improving the state of mobility in many European Regions.
This analysis can be more easily carried out on the projects that have already concluded this transfer process, as it is more difficult to evaluate the (potential) outcomes of the ongoing projects.
Nevertheless, as we have seen, all the projects have achieved interesting results, albeit to different extents, that could be useful for other projects or for other regional authorities. In this chapter, we can mention the results that are of particular significance due to their potential impact or their importance at the European level.
To begin with, we can mention a set of policies and methodologies adopted by the Regions.
• The experience carried out in the Gothenburg Region (CATCH) based on a participative approach to land and transport planning. This approach is important and can help persuade other Regions or local authorities to use this approach in planning procedures involving many stakeholders and different administrative bodies. It represents an effective tool for achieving consensus and allows the focus to be placed on the most viable solutions.
• The defining of integrated transport plans for metropolitan areas, taking account of environmental variables and diversified and integrated transport techniques and media. A particularly interesting experience is the one used in Paris Ile-de-France (CAPRICE) which is a good example of a systematic approach to defining the needs, targets, and plans covering the whole spectrum of mobility modes and issues. This is a significant methodological example that can be disseminated in large urban areas.
• Another specific experience, which aims at enlarging the range of mobility techniques integrated in urban mobility plans, is the case of Stockholm where the new plan also includes a set of Mobility Management actions as part of the overall urban mobility system.
• Several Regions/Authorities have opted for integration, especially with regard to public transport plans, both in large urban areas and large Regions. Among the identified Good Practices, there are several examples of integrated public transport organisation and re-design (Berlin, Brandenburg, Budapest, West Transdanubia, Moravia-Silesia, Stockholm, etc.). A particularly interesting experience can be seen in the West Midlands County (PIMMS CAPITAL), with an Integrated Transport Strategy based on a set of practices: public engagement and consultation including the involvement of minority and disability groups, establishing governance arrangements with partnering authorities, developing integrated transport strategies in close collaboration with businesses and private sector partners and establishing strong links between transport and economic and spatial strategies for the Region.
• A Topic currently in the spotlight is related to the public transport tendering process and methodologies; it has been the object of transfer from Berlin and Paris to Bucharest and especially to Warsaw (CAPRICE) where it led to the adoption of a new strategy for managing the transition from a completely public managed public transport system to a mixed-scheme that includes the presence of private operators. This model could be of interest to those Regions looking to such a transition (especially in the new Eastern Europe Member States).
• Travel planners provide useful support for public transport users and should be disseminated and accessible in all Regions that have multimodal transport networks involving different operators. The travel planner developed by VBB Berlin and subsequently transferred to ZTM Warsaw is a good example of a multimodal integrated tool of this kind. Of course the specific implementation is based on commercially available tools and must be specifically tailored, but the methodological framework can provide a significant input for other Regions and Cities.
• The creation of interchanges is a technique widely used in cities to organise modern transport systems, but it does imply a significant amount of organisational and technological components. A good interchange system needs an accurate design and analysis. The London case analysed within the CATCH Project led to the production of an interchange Good Practice guideline. A similar analysis has been carried out in Gothenburg, but the manual is so far only available in Swedish.
• A particular case is represented by DRT, which has been extensively considered by the FLIPPER Project and has been addressed by some of the Good Practices in other Projects. A specific focus on rural areas is original and interesting in the way it significantly helps the public services in low-demand areas and, for this reason, it could be interesting to many other European Regions, to promote its development. It is the application on Flexible Transport techniques aimed at low-demand rural areas. A notable outcome of the FLIPPER Project are the ‘DRT handbooks’, which provide guidelines for their implementation, from a technical and legal point of view, as well as a methodology to evaluate the characteristics of a DRT.
• A comprehensive and innovative approach to developing a Local Travel Plan for a wide area is the one currently being used for the Cambridge – London area (Better Bankside and Cambridge Science Park - East Anglia) in the PIMMS TRANSFER Project. It consists of several different integrated initiatives (it provides mobility centres with information, events, discounts, devices, etc.) both for public and private (even small) companies. The various measures introduced in this Travel Plan, focusing on cycling and walking, constitute a complete package that can be used alongside the different promotional transport-related actions and offers a series of benefits to the user as well as contributing to reducing car use.
• A different approach has been applied in the Hessen Region, but it also represents an interesting example of Mobility Management plans applied to large industrial realities.
• BeMobility, in Berlin, offers other cities an innovative solution for integration across ‘traditional’ public transport services and bike and car sharing, through an integrated access and payment system. This was a pilot action, which will now be extended, but it is significant as an example of how to successfully integrate different urban mobility services.
We must reiterate that, when we speak about the potential of capitalising on the Good Practice models identified by the Projects, in the large majority of the cases, it will be necessary to carry out an accurate feasibility and transferability analysis so as to define the real possibility and to adapt the implementation to local conditions and constraints.
For the ongoing Projects, it is possible to outline the most important Topics they tackle and identify the commonalities that exist between some of the ongoing Projects and the completed ones, potentially allowing the outputs of the latter to be used as inputs for the former.
Some Projects address areas that are extremely important in terms of the contribution they could make.
The first is EPTA: the aim of the Project is to develop a common model for organising a Public Transport Authority (PTA), taking into consideration the different legislative environments of the different Member States. This common model will be transferable and adaptable, so as to be used for the successful setting-up or (re)organisation of a PTA. The second is ECOTALE. The project includes Good Practices related to the internalisation of external costs with a wide spectrum of factors taken into account, including costs generated by congestion, pollution, accidents and road safety. The different solutions adopted, not only within the Project partners but across Europe, have been identified and studied. The issue is important and can help policymakers achieve more balanced policies in the field of mobility. The Project aims to produce a portfolio of ‘Guidelines of transferability’ for each of a restricted set of selected Good Practices to help public bodies better understand the applicability of these techniques.
The third is POSSE, aimed at encouraging the use of ITS for sustainable urban policies through the transfer of Good Practices from the UK and Germany to follower cities elsewhere in Europe and to support the development of appropriate European wide open specifications and standards. ITS need to be standardised, and this Project could provide a relevant contribution in this respect. A Good Practice Guidelines will be delivered.
Moreover, there is a set of projects that deal with ITS- related issues, from different perspectives. In fact, RITS-NET aims to promote the widespread use of ITS through regional ITS implementation plans. This Topic is very important too because ITS are a powerful tool for improving the efficiency and accessibility of public transport services, rationalising modal choice, and making roads safer. In addition, POLITE addresses Infomobility, notably the problem of providing travellers with adequate and complete information on the Public Transport (PT) services available in a region, at different geographic levels. Coordination between these different Projects which share common traits is important. MOG focuses on transport in rural areas, where the demand is always low and often spread across the territory and where PT often plays a very marginal role. The project also aims at finding solutions to ensure PT services for rural areas by seeking to adopt innovative solutions that do not entail traditional PT line services. An important comparison and link can be made with the FLIPPER project with regard to all the Topics related to DRT in rural areas. The work carried out within FLIPPER could be an important input for future work in MOG. The evaluation of economic and generalised costs is a key factor for capitalisation and the link with the ECOTALE project, which deals with the internalisation of external costs could be methodologically important, since an evaluation of the social, environmental, and general costs is important to give a clear view on the feasibility of adopting the transport solutions proposed.
The SUM Project mainly deals with electric mobility; the main common trait with the concluded projects is with MMOVE with regard to the experience of Reggio Emilia in the use of electric vehicles.
Finally, CYCLE CITIES which, is of course, focused on promoting the widespread use of cycling, could have significant linkages with the work carried out in MMOVE and PIMMS CAPITAL Projects and, to a lesser extent, with the CATCH_MR Project with respect to bike sharing.
- 4.6 CORE PRE-REQUISITES FOR SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION
Changing the structure of mobility and transport in Regions is quite a complex problem. It implies many different coordinated actions, the availability of infrastructures and vehicles, and requires long-term action provided in several integrated steps. Each of these steps can achieve partial results in the desired direction if they are all coordinated and fit synergetically together.
For this reason, almost all the European States request the regional or Local Authorities responsible to develop a mobility plan (it may be sometimes called differently). It should be the main tool to define the regional policies for sustainable mobility. The environmental dimension and different externalities in general are now being integrated into the plan.
These plans, which represent an overarching vision of the desired mobility framework, can be considered as the first pre-requisite for the implementation of regional policies.
Although it is difficult to ascertain from the information available in the Projects, it seems that the majority of the Regions have their own general policy framework in the field of mobility, defined through these plans. Their participation in the INTERREG IVC Programme is intended to enhance the potential of such policies and improve governance skills. For this reason, several Regions have chosen to focus the Projects mainly on Topics related to mobility and public transport planning.
Many of the actions carried out within the various projects are related to specific Topics, pilot actions, and mobility services, which contribute to this general framework. In focusing our attention on the transferability of specific Good Practices or policies identified by the Projects, we have neglected to analyse the transferable pre-requisites to transfer. The examining of pre-requisites or pre-conditions is a very important part of the Good Practices analysis and it are not always performed to the proper degree, and the results of any such analysis are not always reported in the Project documentation. This lack of analysis (or reported information) makes it difficult for others to understand if the identified Good Practice is really applicable in their environment, even if it is in line with their general policy. Of course, this does not affect the results of the Project, since the internal transfer (of Good Practice or policies) can only take place after a feasibility analysis, but it may reduce the potential for transfer outside the Project.
- 4.7 SYNERGIES AMONG THE PROJECTS
• CAPRICE: The most important potential synergy with other projects is with the CATCH_MR project that deals with sustainable transportation issues in metropolitan areas. The project is already completed, so the relationships with other European projects and initiatives cannot represent an input to the project itself. During the project (2010-2012) there were links with the EU-Spirit network (FP6) and with the EMTA network (European Metropolitan Transport Authorities).
• CATCH_MR: The most important linkage with other projects is in the CAPRICE project that deals with capital regions integrating collective transport with a view to increasing energy efficiency. During its implementation (2010-2012), the project worked with URBACT LUMASEC (Land Use Management for Sustainable European Cities) project and cooperation with EUROCITIES.
• FLIPPER: The most important potential synergy is with the MOG project. The methodologies and opportunities for adopting DRT in a rural environment developed in the FLIPPER framework could be fruitfully used by the MOG project. In fact, new solutions for sustainable transport in the rural environment are the focus of this project. It should be noted that a significant part of the work that needs to be carried out in the MOG project concerning DRT could be largely derived from FLIPPER. The project has developed an interesting and complete online library containing several documents about DRT. The thematic specific focus of FLIPPER has made it possible to have a comprehensive analysis of the state–of-the-art and to collect significant available documentation. The project itself is a result of the preceding INTERREG programme.
• MMOVE: Numerous relationships can be found with several projects, since the approach used in MMOVE was ‘horizontal’, and therefore addressed many of the Topics tackled by the other projects as well. We should underline that the target of the previous CIVITAS Programme was specifically medium-sized cities. In this context, a large number of sustainable mobility actions have been implemented, which are related to the same themes and to the same application environment.
• PIMMS CAPITAL: PIMMS CAPITAL successfully regionalised the approach used by PIMMS (INTERREG IIIC) and extended in PIMMS TRANSFER (INTERREG IVC) and the ongoing INVOLVE project. The project also involves an extensive range of stakeholders at the local and municipal level, this is essential for the successful adoption of regional Action Plans in mobility management, including other sources of Good Practices and expertise, notably other EU-funded projects (IEE, INTERREG IVC (MMOVE)) and networks (EPOMM, ELTIS, CIVITAS, POLIS, ERRIN) and demonstrates how mobility management can add value to the ERDF-funded capital investment in ‘hard-measures’, especially in public transport in convergence regions.
• PIMMS TRANSFER: PIMMS TRANSFER extended and promoted the ‘transfer methodology’ developed in PIMMS (project funded under INTERREG IIIC).
• EPTA: The Project addresses all the functions of a PTA - so the work carried out within CAPRICE and CATCH_MR concerns PTAs. Moreover, it is important to consider a possible synergy with the work being done by ECOTALE on external costs. Lastly, some aspects related to the regulatory framework applying to DRT could be shared with the MOG project, based on the work undertaken within the FLIPPER Project. There is a specific focus in CAPRICE, which is devoted to the ‘Methodology used to draw up contracts for public transport services’, based on the experience transferred from Paris and Berlin to Bucharest and Vilnius. This could be significant for EPTA. CATCH_MR identified some Good Practices that could be related to EPTA, namely the creation of a transport authority in Budapest and the funding of PT in Berlin-Brandenburg. The issue of the internalisation of external costs should also be taken into account in the evaluation of PT investments such as in tendering procedures. On this point, the ECOTALE project intends to define a general methodology; interaction between the two projects could be beneficial if the outcomes from ECOTALE prove to be significant and if the timing allows for the use of these findings by EPTA.
• RITS-NET (which focused mainly on the dissemination of ITS in the Regions), POLITE (which mainly targeted traveller information systems - a special subset of ITS) and POSSE (which deals with the use of open standards for ITS application in public administrations) could fruitfully cooperate and share experience and information. The aspect of open standards could provide a methodological and market framework to the applications analysed within the Projects. PPLITE and RITS-NET can offer POSSE another opportunity to explore the possibilities of open standards in a real environment and to involve additional players in the Forum. They have already established an initial contact, and a preliminary cross analysis of the Projects is in progress. The theme of travel planners has also been addressed in other concluded projects, such as CATCH_MR.
• SUM: It seems that there are no substantial synergies with other projects dealing with the project’s main theme - ELECTRIC MOBILITY – focused on promoting the use of electrical vehicles, which can be of special interest if it based on a wireless network for charging electric buses.
• MOG: An important potential synergy could be developed with the FLIPPER project with regard to all the Topics related to DRT in rural areas. The work developed within FLIPPER could provide an important input to the work to be developed on this Topic. As the evaluation of economic and generalised costs is, as we have seen, a key factor in capitalisation, the relationship with ECOTALE concerning the internalisation of external costs could be methodologically important, as the evaluation of the social, environmental, and general costs is important, so as to give a clear view of the feasibility of adopting the transport solutions proposed.
• INVOLVE: As the Project deals with a wide range of Topics, a large number of commonalities with the other projects exists. INVOLVE itself, in its Good Practices survey, has included results from some of the concluded Projects. Given the particular approach selected by the Project, this kind of relationship would seem to be sufficient. In particular the INVOLVE Project has a lot of Topics in common with different concluded Projects (CAPRICE, PIMMS CAPITAL and Transfer and CATCH_MR) and could benefit from the work carried out by them.
• ECOTALE: only a few of the Good Practices and experiences identified within INTERREG IVC Projects could have relevance for this Project, as the Topic of this Project is very specific. But the outcomes of this Project could be very useful for other Projects, as already mentioned.
• CYCLE CITIES: In the methodological guide for organising the workshops, special importance is placed on the EU projects relevant to CYCLE CITIES. This could be a useful tool for exploiting synergies among other projects considered in INTERREG IVC, like MMOVE, PIMMS TRANSFER, FLIPPER and CATCH-MR. For this reason, the CYCLE CITIES project will exploit the knowledge gained through these projects and create synergies between them.
• The EU projects considered are the following:
º Baltic Sea Cycling;
º ACTIVE ACCESS;
º PRESTO – ‘Promoting Cycling for Everyone as a Daily Transport Mode’;
º OBIS (Optimising Bike Sharing in European Cities);
º Connected Cities;
º BYPAD: Bicycle Policy Audit.
Different projects about car sharing have been developed within the European FP7 framework (MOSES, momo car-sharing). Even if not specifically related to low-demand areas, they may provide useful input.
The FP7 PORTAL project can give a good overview of the project within the FP programmes devoted to PT regulations and has produced useful documentation.
EMTA (European Metropolitan Transport Authorities) is an association of PTAs across Europe, which could provide interesting information but could also be a stakeholder in the project of defining the model and its capitalisation process.
SIPTRAM Project by the association ICLEI was devoted to tendering processes in PTAs.
- 4.8 SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATIONS
These recommendations will, of course, be directed mostly at the ongoing projects. The majority of the projects deal with tried-and-tested and widely available mobility applications, which are simple in their level of innovation. Their originality generally varies depending on the application environment. The selected practices / policies are related to dozens of different Topics, and for each of them a separate analysis should be conducted. Some aggregated recommendations can be drawn, however.
At first glance, we can provide some general recommendations that could apply to all the projects, (albeit to different extents, as the partners evaluation of the single projects are somewhat different).
• Most of the projects limit the definition of Good Practices to practices applied solely by the project partners. The Good Practices selection process should take into account and encompass (as some of the projects do) a wider policy environment, so as to ensure a higher quality and to promote innovation.
• When selecting the Good Practices, an analysis (even if only a simple one) should be carried out on how the practices are related to the state-of-the-art of the specific applications. By ‘state-of-the-art of the specific application’, we are not referring to the state-of-the-art in absolute terms (i.e. the most innovative applications) but to the application of the technique in the specific environment (for example the Blue Area methodology is actually a mature practice, but the way it is applied in small cities is, of course, novel).
• The projects should focus their attention on a limited number of Good Practices, seek to enhance the level of significance of the selected Good Practices and carry out an accurate transferability analysis. This means they need to point out the preconditions under which transfer is possible as well as the different aspects that have to be tailored and how to go about doing so. Transferability guidelines are needed to fully exploit the capitalisation potential.
• The potential impact of the different Good Practices varies over the time. In order to promote uptake, an evaluation of the potential impact of the selected Good Practices is essential.
If we look at single projects, it is possible to tailor specific recommendations.
A significant amount of theoretical and scientific documentation has been developed on the EPTA Topics, and the project is clearly aware of this and will benefit from it. The work carried out, both in analysing the Good Practices and in defining the model, should pay considerable attention to its use as policy and to the political dimension. All the choices made in this field are determined by policy, including subsidies for PT, pricing schemes, the level of the services provided and the modalities for tenders, etc. Consequently, the analysis should take into account the needs of the public administrators, and should make sure the documents produced are comprehensible and stimulating for them. Maybe, special communication tools should be provided for public administrators and decision-makers.
POLITE and RITS-NET
Guidelines for the use of ITS, with a clear view of the opportunities provided by the different types of systems considered and the problems they can help to solve, need to produces. These Guidelines should mainly target non-specialists and policymakers, and should therefore be clear and simple.
Special attention should be placed on the methods used to assess the economic viability of the various ITS, given that this aspect is one of the main drivers/barriers for their implementation.
Consider creating a synergy between the two ongoing projects and the Posse project.
The potential of Open standards is not well-known in the mobility environment, so an effort needs to be made to disseminate the ideas and the main concept
There is an unbalanced relationship between Public Administration and technology providers on the market, who often prevent even the consideration of adopting open standard solutions. The Project should not only stress technical aspects, but also organisational ones related to the procurement process, maintenance, the defining of specifications, the required skills, etc., in order to enable the Public Administration to benefit fully from all the potential advantages. The project seems to be going in this direction anyway.
Take the opportunity to involve the two parallel projects Polite and RITS-NET as an additional arena to promote open standards and to show their effectiveness.
At this stage of development, the only recommendation that can be provided is to focus attention on the most relevant Topics and techniques, those which are closest to the core problems encountered in the internalisation of external costs, placing other more minor topics in the background.
Particular care must be taken in the preparation of the ‘Guidelines for transferability’ for each of the restricted sets of selected Good Practices, as this could be in itself a remarkable result, suitable for wide dissemination. An important point to be considered when drafting this document is to adopt a non-specialist language that is understandable to policymakers and non-specialists; in fact, different manuals about externalities exists, but they are mainly aimed at specialists and are therefore not so easy to read.
To increase the potential for transferability of electric vehicles and charging systems, the project should address the problem of standards, especially for the most technologically advanced Good Practices, involving cross-border charging facilities, equipped itineraries or intelligent charging grids. E-mobility is an integral part of the 21st century energy concept. The standardisation of electric mobility infrastructure (charging arrangements and protocols) is a priority for a comprehensive long-term European energy strategy, since standards are used as a basis for regulations. The projects should explore the possibilities of knowledge transfer on these aspects to other regions in order to assess their interoperability.
Another recommendation would be to strengthen the activities aimed at enhancing other regions’ experiences with electric vehicles: running demonstration programmes to test both the technologies and the way they are used. It would be useful to explore any niche areas that are already accessible and more favourable to the deployment of electric vehicles: green procurement procedures and public fleets, car sharing schemes, small size fleets (e.g., Municipalities).
Even if the aim of the Project is more focused on disseminating knowledge and raising awareness than accomplishing real Good Practice transfers, one recommendation that can be made is to limit the number of Good Practices chosen, selecting those that the project itself considers to be the most interesting. This does not necessarily mean the most innovative or challenging, but maybe the most original and less known cases, even if they are relatively simple, or those with a potential for wider impact. In analysing and explaining these practices, a clear description of the benefits and of the techniques necessary for their proper implementation should be provided.
Another important recommendation, with the purpose of making analysis easier, is to cluster the Good Practices into homogeneous areas, analysing the most interesting and then presenting similar ones, while also noting the main differences.
Focus the project on the most promising Good Practices avoiding using resources on Topics that are too general or not directly related to the core theme of the project (such as subsidies for PT or very specific tourism initiatives)
Take advantage of the achievements of the FLIPPER project with regard to DRT techniques for low-demand areas
Devote attention to defining a methodology for evaluating the costs and the economic viability of the transfer of the selected Good Practices, as this is one of the main means of ensuring transferability.
Provide a clear multi-perspective view of the preconditions to the transferability of the Good Practices considered and generalise the methodology used to analyse this transferability as much as possible.